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Differential diagnosis > Chest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Deck (25):
1

A solitary pulmonary nodule

1. Granuloma
2. Neoplasm (bronchogenic carcinoma or solitary metastasis)
3. Hamartoma

Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Round pneumonia
2. Arteriovenous malformation

2

Multiple pulmonary nodules

1. Metastatic disease
2. Granulomatous disease (TB or fungal)
3. Septic emboli
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Wegener disease
2. Rheumatoid arthritis

3

A cavitary pulmonary nodule

1. Tuberculosis
2. Fungal disease
3. Squamous cell carcinoma (primary of metastatic)
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pyogenic infection (pulmonary abscess and septic emboli)
2. Wegener disease
3. Rheumatoid arthritis

4

Miliary pulmonary nodules

1. Tuberculosis
2. Fungal disease
3. Metastatic disease
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pnemoconioses
2. Healed varicella

5

Centrilobular pulmonary nodules

1. Infectious bronchiolitis (MAC and TB)
2. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
3. Endobronchial spread of tumour
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Respiratory bronchiolitis associated interstitial lung disease
2. Pneumoconioses

6

Cystic lung disease

1. Emphysema
2. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pneumocystis pneumonia
2. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis

7

Lower lobe interstitial disease

1. Usual interstitial pneumonia
2. Collagen vascular disease (scleroderma)
3. Asbestos-related lung disease
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Drug toxicity

8

Upper lobe interstitial disease

1. Tuberculosis
2. Sarcoidosis
3. Cystic fibrosis
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pneumoconioses
2.Langerhans cell histiocytosis

9

A hyperlucent lung

1. Chest wall abnormality (mastectomy or Poland syndrome)
2. Swyer-James syndrome
3. Acute asthmatic attack
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Airway obstruction
2. Pulmonary embolism
3. Pneumothorax

10

An anterior mediastinal mass

The 5 T's:
1. Terrible lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma)
2. Thymus lesion (thymoma: most common primary neoplasm of the anterosuperior mediastinum; invasive thymoma; thymic carcinoma; thymolipoma/thymoliposarcoma; thymic cyst; thymic hyperplasia; thymic carcinoid)
3. Thyroid lesion (thyroid neoplasms; thyroid goitre; parathyroid neoplasms)
4. Teratoma and germ cell neoplasm (teratoma - 75% are mature, immature, teratocarcinoma is a malignant teratoma; seminoma; embryonal cell carcinoma; yolk sac tumour; choriocarcinoma; mediastinal mixed cell type germ cell tumour)
5. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

11

A middle mediastinal mass

1. Lymphadenopathy
2. Vascular abnormality (aortic or pulmonary artery aneurysm)
3. Congenital cyst (bronchogenic cyst) Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Hiatal hernia

12

A posterior mediastinal mass

1. Neurogenic tumour
2. Lymphoma
3. Developmental cyst (neuroenteric cyst)
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Extramedullary haematopoiesis
2. Mediastinal haematoma

13

Chronic air space disease

1. Crytogenic organising pneumoniae
2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
3. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia
2. Lipoid pneumonia

14

Peripheral air space disease

1. Crytogenic organising pneumoniae
2. Eosinophilic pneumonia
3. Pulmonary infarct
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Pulmonary contusion
2. Alveolar sarcoidosis

15

Ground glass opacification

1. Pulmonary oedema
2. Atypical infection
3. Pulmonary haemorrhage
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
2. Alveolar proteinosis
3. Vasculitis

16

Mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy

1. Infection
2. Lymphoma
3. Sarcoidosis
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Metastatic disease
2. Pneumoconioses

17

Calcified pleural disease

1. Asbestos related pleural disease
2. Fibrothorax (prior infection or haemorrhage)
3.Iatrogenic (pleurodesis)
Additional diagnostic considerations:

18

Brochiectasis

1. Postinfectious (bacterial and TB and MAC)
2. Cystic fibrosis
3. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Additional diagnostic considerations: 1. Obstructive lesion/mass
Ciliary dyskinesia

19

Perilymphatic pulmonary nodules

1. Sarcoidosis
2. Lymphangitic spread of tumour
3. Pneumoconioses
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Lymphoproliferative disorder

20

A pleural-based mass

1. Pleural-based metastatic disease
2. Empyema
3. Mesothelioma
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Fibrous tumour of the pleura
2. Fibrothorax

21

Parenchymal disease in an HIV patient

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia
2. Tuberculosis
3. Fungal infection
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Invasive aspergillosis
2. Kaposi sarcoma
3. Pulmonary lymphoma

22

An abnormal left ventricular contour

1. True left ventricular aneurysm
2. False left ventricular aneurysm
3. Pericardial cyst/mass
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Calcific pericarditis

23

A cardiac mass

1. Thrombus
2. Metastatic disease
3. Benign cardiac neoplasm (atrial myxoma and rhabdomyoma)
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Malignant cardiac neoplasm (sarcoma and lymphoma)

24

Delayed myocardial enhancement

1. Infarction/scar
2. Myocarditis
3. Cardiac mass
Additional diagnostic considerations:
1. Infiltrative disease (granulomatous and amyloidosis)

25

Cardiac wall fatty deposition

1. Lipoma
2. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum
3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Additional diagnostic considerations: