Chest Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals of Radiology > Chest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Deck (127):
1

When you observe a supine AP chest radiograph, the ________ are projected higher and the _______ fields appear shorter

clavicles, lung

2

What is standard SID for chest Xrays?

72 inches

3

At 72" SID for a chest Xray, what is decreased in magnification?

heart

4

At 72" SID for a chest Xray, what is increased in magnification?

lung structures

5

Using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiographs _______magnification of the heart and creates ____ ______ of the delicate lung structures.

decreases, sharper outlines

6

For a PA projection of the chest, the back of the hands should be placed ?

on the hips.

7

The space between the two pleural walls is called the ?

pleural cavity.

8

The esophagus lies behind the _____.

trachea

9

The AP oblique projection-RPO position of the chest corresponds to, and essentially produces the same image as the PA oblique projection, LAO.
True or False?

True

10

The AP oblique projection- LPO position of the chest corresponds to, and essentially produces the same image as the PA oblique projection, RAO.
True or False?

True

11

After entering the hilum, each primary bronchus divides. There are ____ primary branches on the left and ____ primary branches on the right.

2, 3

12

The top of the cassette should be positioned _____ - _____ inches above the vertebral prominens for a PA oblique projection of the lungs.

1 1/2 - 2

13

A patient in the _____ position with a _____beam is required to produce a radiograph using a ______ position.

recumbent
horizontal
decubitus

14

The _______ plane must be accurately parallel with the cassette to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a _____ chest radiograph.

midsagittal
lateral

15

The ______ method is used to demonstrate the pulmonary apices.

Lindblom

16

The cassette should be positioned 1 ½-2 inches above the shoulders for any _____ position of the chest.

decubitus

17

The degree of body rotation for the PA oblique, LAO position of the chest during a cardiac series is

55-60o.

18

When the patient is properly positioned for a PA oblique of the chest, the CR will enter the body midway between the _____surface of the elevated side and the _____.

lateral
spine

19

_____and _______ are exchanged by diffusion within the alveoli.

Oxygen
carbon dioxide

20

The entire lung field, patient’s arms not visible in the image and identification to indicate which _____ was performed are all required and must be clearly demonstrated on x-ray projections done using a _____ position.

decubitus
decubitus

21

The top of the cassette should be positioned 1/12-2 inches above the ____ ____ for a supine AP chest radiograph.

relaxed shoulders

22

The name of the hook-like process on the last tracheal cartilage is the .

carina

23

For oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side ____to the cassette.

closest

24

The patient must be ____for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position.

supine

25

The left lateral chest position is most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest because it places the patient’s ____closer to the cassette.

heart

26

Both lungs in their entirety and the trachea filled with air must be clearly demonstrated on an __ / ___ ____ projection of the lungs.

AP or PA oblique

27

The area between the two lungs is termed the .

mediastinum

28

Each lung is divided into specific segments called .

lobes

29

The ____ angle is part of the lung.

costophrenic

30

The respiration phase for AP or lateral projections performed in the _____ position is full inspiration.

decubitus

31

If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices is ___ - ____* _____.

15-20o cephalad

32

____ ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph.

Ten

33

The name of the double-walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung is the .

pleura

34

The name of the tongue-shaped process on the anterior-medial border of the left lung is the .

lingual

35

If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, then the patient must lie on the ____ side.

affected

36

The smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree is the ____ bronchial.

terminal

37

The affected side of the patient’s chest is placed against the vertical cassette for a ventral or dorsal _____ lateral projection.

decubitus

38

The recommended SID for a PA chest radiograph is ____ inches.

72

39

The trachea lies ____ to the esophagus.

anterior

40

An AP, full inspiration and an AP, full expiration are usually taken on a patient who is suspected of having a small amount of free air in the _____ cavity.

pleural

41

The respiratory system proper consists of the ___, ____ , _____, & _______

larynx, trachea, bronchi, and both lungs.

42

If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate free air in the pleural cavity, then the patient should lie on the ____ side.

unaffected

43

The CR is not angled for the Lindblom method (lordotic position) of demonstrating the pulmonary apices.
True or False

True

44

The patient should remain in position for ___ minutes before making the exposure when performing a projection in the lateral or dorsal decubitus position.

5

45

The respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices is .

inspiration

46

The CR should be angled for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest. The CR should not be perpendicular.
True or False?

False
The CR shouldn't be angled, the CR SHOULD be perpendicular

47

The most optimal position of the patient for examination s of the heart and lungs is upright
True or false?

True

48

The patient should stand ___ foot in front of the grid device before leaning backward for the lordotic position.

one

49

The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed .

pneumothorax

50

For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side ____ from the cassette.

farthest

51

The optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph is full ____-second breath.

inspiration

52

The lungs are composed of a light, spongy, elastic substance called the .

parenchyma

53

The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is termed the .

apex

54

High ____ is required to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy.

kVp

55

what is the Body Habitus?

shape of your insides

56

the diaphragm ___ when the lung expands

drops

57

the walls of the thorax does not bind the thoracic cavity.
true or false

false, it does bind it

58

what organ is in both the thoracic and abdominal cavity?

esophagus

59

what 3 chambers are in thoracic cavity

pericardial cavity
right pleural cavity
left pleural cavity

60

what are the cavities in the thoracic cavity lined with?

shiny, slippery and delicate serous membrane

61

what is mediastinum

space between 2 pleural cavities

62

the mediastinum contains all the thoracic structures except the ___ and the ____

lungs, pleurae

63

what structures make up respiratory system?

pharynx
trachea
bronchi
2 lungs

64

the air passages of the respiratory system communicate with the exterior through the ____, ____, and _____

pharynx, mouth, nose

65

a fibrous muscular tube with 16-20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings embedded in it walls; mostly soft tissue

trachea

66

the trachea lies in the _____ line of the body

midline

67

the trachea is ___ to the esophagus in the neck

anterior

68

the trachea extends from the larynx / C-__ through the mediastinum to about the T__/T__ vertebrae

C-6
T4/T5

69

the last tracheal cartilage is elongated and has a hooklike process called the

carina

70

at the carina the trachea divides into

the primary bronchi

71

the right primary bronchus is ____ and ____ and more vertical then the left primary bronchus

shorter and wider

72

because of the size and position of the right primary bronchus, foreign bodies that enter the traceha are most likely to go to the ____ bronchus

right

73

after entering the lungs the bronchus dives into branches that enter each of the different lobes.
these are called?

secondary bronchi

74

the secondary bronchi dives into _____ bronchie

tertiary

75

tertiary bronchi divides into smaller _____ and end in minuste tubes called _____ ______

bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

76

the terminal bronchioles communicate with ___ ____

aveolar ducts

77

aveolar ducts end in several ____ ____

aveolar sacs

78

the walls of the aveolor sacs are lined with ____

aveoli for gas exchange

79

the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs within the walls of the

aveoli

80

the lungs are composed of light, spongy, highly elastic substance called

parenchyma

81

the structure of the lungs:
______
_______

apex
base

82

the apex of the lungs is where?

above the clavicles

83

the base of the lungs is where?

rests on diaphragm; lower in the back an sides than the front

84

during respiration, the lungs move ____ on inspiration

inferiorly

85

during respiration the lungs move ____ for experiation

superiorly

86

during inspiration the lateral margins of the lungs descend into the deep recesses of the parietal pleuara. in radiology this is called

costophrenic angle

87

the mediastinal surface is convace with a depression called

hilum

88

what accomodates the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves?

hilum

89

the inferior medistinal surface of the left lung contains a concavity called ____ ____ that conforms to the shape of the heart

cardiac notch

90

each lung is enclosed in a double-walled serious membrane sac called

pleura

91

pleura consist of:
______
______

visceral pleura
parietal pleura

92

what is visceral pleura

inner layer of the pleural sac that closely adheres to the surface of the lung

93

what is the parietal pleura

outer layer of the pleural sac that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity

94

the 2 pleurae are moistened by

serous fluid so they move easil on each other

95

the space between teh visceral and parieta pleura

pleural cavity

96

lungs are divided into lobes by

deep fissures

97

the ____ fissure divide the lung into superior and inferior lobes

oblique

98

the right superior lobe is divided again by the ___ fissure creating the middle lobe

horizontal

99

on the left lung at the level of the right middle lobe is an area called the

lingula

100

tongue-shaped process on the anteromedial border of the left lung that fills the space between the chest wall and the heart

lingula

101

area of the thorax bounded by the sternum anteriorly, the spine posteriorly, and the lungs laterally

mediastinum

102

are the lungs part of the mediastinum?

no

103

what organs are part of the mediastinum/

heart
great vessels
trachea
esophagus
thymus
lymphatics
nerves
fibrous tissue
fat

104

--part of the digestive canal that connects the pharynx to the stomach
--about 9" long
--lies in front of the vertebral column and behind the trachea
--descends through the diaphragm
--with barium in it, it outlines the posterior heart and aorta

esophagus

105

--primary control organ of the lymphatic gland
--produces thymosin
--located from the thyroid to superior mediastinum, anterior to the trachea, posterior to manubrium
--it's at its max size at purberty and then it atrophies

thymus

106

what is the manubrium

shield on sternum

107

Positioning considerations:
upright:

diaphragm lower
air-fluid levels
10 posterior ribs

108

Positioning considerations:
recumbent (lying down):

engorgement of vessels
compresses thoracic viscera
cannot fully expand lungs

109

Positions: PA
___ is closer to the IR

heart

110

Positions: Left Lateral:
____is closer to the IR

heart

111

You have ____ magnification in what 2 positions at SID of 72"

less

112

True or false
a slight amount of rotation from the PA or lateral projections causes a considerable distortion of the heart shadow

TRUE

113

PA Criteria:

--patient to stand or sit upright
--position patient's head upright,, facing directly forward
--have patient wrap arms around bucky or hands on hip
--relax shoulders and roll shoulders forward toward the bucky

114

Lateral Criteria:

--place side of interest (almost always left) against IR
--have patient equally distribute weight
--do not lean into or away from bucky
--raise patient's arms to prevent tissue of teh arms from being on it
--look straight ahead and lift chin
--to determine rotation, examine th posterior aspects of the ribs - radiograph should show superimposed posterior

115

Oblique Criteria:

--patient rotates the hips with the thorax
--points feet directly forward
--turns whole body not hips

116

You want deep expiration when obtaining chest xrays

False, you want deep inspiration - it shows more air

117

Why do you ask them to hold their breath on 2nd deep inspiration?

more air is inhaled during a second breath than the first breath

118

gas or air in pleural cavity

pneumothorax

119

When a pneumothorax is suspected ____ and _____ films may be obtained

inspiration and expiration

120

Inspiration/Expiration is also used for _____, _________, & ________

diaphragm movement, foreign bodies, & atelectasis

121

The PA projection of the chest is the most common projection and is used in all ____ and ______ exams

heart and lung

122

Are right/left obliques used as supplements to the PA chest or is it the main source?

supplements

123

What lateral is the most common projection?

Left Lateral

124

Adequate ___ must be used to penetrate the mediastinum and demonstrate a shadow of the spine

kVp

125

At 72" SID, what is the general kVp used?

110-120

126

mAs =

quantity (dialing up quantity of electrons)

127

kVp =

quality - penetrability