Flashcards in Chest Deck (127):
When you observe a supine AP chest radiograph, the ________ are projected higher and the _______ fields appear shorter
What is standard SID for chest Xrays?
At 72" SID for a chest Xray, what is decreased in magnification?
At 72" SID for a chest Xray, what is increased in magnification?
Using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiographs _______magnification of the heart and creates ____ ______ of the delicate lung structures.
decreases, sharper outlines
For a PA projection of the chest, the back of the hands should be placed ?
on the hips.
The space between the two pleural walls is called the ?
The esophagus lies behind the _____.
The AP oblique projection-RPO position of the chest corresponds to, and essentially produces the same image as the PA oblique projection, LAO.
True or False?
The AP oblique projection- LPO position of the chest corresponds to, and essentially produces the same image as the PA oblique projection, RAO.
True or False?
After entering the hilum, each primary bronchus divides. There are ____ primary branches on the left and ____ primary branches on the right.
The top of the cassette should be positioned _____ - _____ inches above the vertebral prominens for a PA oblique projection of the lungs.
1 1/2 - 2
A patient in the _____ position with a _____beam is required to produce a radiograph using a ______ position.
The _______ plane must be accurately parallel with the cassette to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a _____ chest radiograph.
The ______ method is used to demonstrate the pulmonary apices.
The cassette should be positioned 1 ½-2 inches above the shoulders for any _____ position of the chest.
The degree of body rotation for the PA oblique, LAO position of the chest during a cardiac series is
When the patient is properly positioned for a PA oblique of the chest, the CR will enter the body midway between the _____surface of the elevated side and the _____.
_____and _______ are exchanged by diffusion within the alveoli.
The entire lung field, patient’s arms not visible in the image and identification to indicate which _____ was performed are all required and must be clearly demonstrated on x-ray projections done using a _____ position.
The top of the cassette should be positioned 1/12-2 inches above the ____ ____ for a supine AP chest radiograph.
The name of the hook-like process on the last tracheal cartilage is the .
For oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side ____to the cassette.
The patient must be ____for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position.
The left lateral chest position is most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest because it places the patient’s ____closer to the cassette.
Both lungs in their entirety and the trachea filled with air must be clearly demonstrated on an __ / ___ ____ projection of the lungs.
AP or PA oblique
The area between the two lungs is termed the .
Each lung is divided into specific segments called .
The ____ angle is part of the lung.
The respiration phase for AP or lateral projections performed in the _____ position is full inspiration.
If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices is ___ - ____* _____.
____ ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph.
The name of the double-walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung is the .
The name of the tongue-shaped process on the anterior-medial border of the left lung is the .
If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, then the patient must lie on the ____ side.
The smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree is the ____ bronchial.
The affected side of the patient’s chest is placed against the vertical cassette for a ventral or dorsal _____ lateral projection.
The recommended SID for a PA chest radiograph is ____ inches.
The trachea lies ____ to the esophagus.
An AP, full inspiration and an AP, full expiration are usually taken on a patient who is suspected of having a small amount of free air in the _____ cavity.
The respiratory system proper consists of the ___, ____ , _____, & _______
larynx, trachea, bronchi, and both lungs.
If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate free air in the pleural cavity, then the patient should lie on the ____ side.
The CR is not angled for the Lindblom method (lordotic position) of demonstrating the pulmonary apices.
True or False
The patient should remain in position for ___ minutes before making the exposure when performing a projection in the lateral or dorsal decubitus position.
The respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices is .
The CR should be angled for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest. The CR should not be perpendicular.
True or False?
The CR shouldn't be angled, the CR SHOULD be perpendicular
The most optimal position of the patient for examination s of the heart and lungs is upright
True or false?
The patient should stand ___ foot in front of the grid device before leaning backward for the lordotic position.
The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed .
For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side ____ from the cassette.
The optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph is full ____-second breath.
The lungs are composed of a light, spongy, elastic substance called the .
The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is termed the .
High ____ is required to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy.
what is the Body Habitus?
shape of your insides
the diaphragm ___ when the lung expands
the walls of the thorax does not bind the thoracic cavity.
true or false
false, it does bind it
what organ is in both the thoracic and abdominal cavity?
what 3 chambers are in thoracic cavity
right pleural cavity
left pleural cavity
what are the cavities in the thoracic cavity lined with?
shiny, slippery and delicate serous membrane
what is mediastinum
space between 2 pleural cavities
the mediastinum contains all the thoracic structures except the ___ and the ____
what structures make up respiratory system?
the air passages of the respiratory system communicate with the exterior through the ____, ____, and _____
pharynx, mouth, nose
a fibrous muscular tube with 16-20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings embedded in it walls; mostly soft tissue
the trachea lies in the _____ line of the body
the trachea is ___ to the esophagus in the neck
the trachea extends from the larynx / C-__ through the mediastinum to about the T__/T__ vertebrae
the last tracheal cartilage is elongated and has a hooklike process called the
at the carina the trachea divides into
the primary bronchi
the right primary bronchus is ____ and ____ and more vertical then the left primary bronchus
shorter and wider
because of the size and position of the right primary bronchus, foreign bodies that enter the traceha are most likely to go to the ____ bronchus
after entering the lungs the bronchus dives into branches that enter each of the different lobes.
these are called?
the secondary bronchi dives into _____ bronchie
tertiary bronchi divides into smaller _____ and end in minuste tubes called _____ ______
the terminal bronchioles communicate with ___ ____
aveolar ducts end in several ____ ____
the walls of the aveolor sacs are lined with ____
aveoli for gas exchange
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs within the walls of the
the lungs are composed of light, spongy, highly elastic substance called
the structure of the lungs:
the apex of the lungs is where?
above the clavicles
the base of the lungs is where?
rests on diaphragm; lower in the back an sides than the front
during respiration, the lungs move ____ on inspiration
during respiration the lungs move ____ for experiation
during inspiration the lateral margins of the lungs descend into the deep recesses of the parietal pleuara. in radiology this is called
the mediastinal surface is convace with a depression called
what accomodates the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves?
the inferior medistinal surface of the left lung contains a concavity called ____ ____ that conforms to the shape of the heart
each lung is enclosed in a double-walled serious membrane sac called
pleura consist of:
what is visceral pleura
inner layer of the pleural sac that closely adheres to the surface of the lung
what is the parietal pleura
outer layer of the pleural sac that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity
the 2 pleurae are moistened by
serous fluid so they move easil on each other
the space between teh visceral and parieta pleura
lungs are divided into lobes by
the ____ fissure divide the lung into superior and inferior lobes
the right superior lobe is divided again by the ___ fissure creating the middle lobe
on the left lung at the level of the right middle lobe is an area called the
tongue-shaped process on the anteromedial border of the left lung that fills the space between the chest wall and the heart
area of the thorax bounded by the sternum anteriorly, the spine posteriorly, and the lungs laterally
are the lungs part of the mediastinum?
what organs are part of the mediastinum/
--part of the digestive canal that connects the pharynx to the stomach
--about 9" long
--lies in front of the vertebral column and behind the trachea
--descends through the diaphragm
--with barium in it, it outlines the posterior heart and aorta
--primary control organ of the lymphatic gland
--located from the thyroid to superior mediastinum, anterior to the trachea, posterior to manubrium
--it's at its max size at purberty and then it atrophies
what is the manubrium
shield on sternum
10 posterior ribs
recumbent (lying down):
engorgement of vessels
compresses thoracic viscera
cannot fully expand lungs
___ is closer to the IR
Positions: Left Lateral:
____is closer to the IR
You have ____ magnification in what 2 positions at SID of 72"
True or false
a slight amount of rotation from the PA or lateral projections causes a considerable distortion of the heart shadow
--patient to stand or sit upright
--position patient's head upright,, facing directly forward
--have patient wrap arms around bucky or hands on hip
--relax shoulders and roll shoulders forward toward the bucky
--place side of interest (almost always left) against IR
--have patient equally distribute weight
--do not lean into or away from bucky
--raise patient's arms to prevent tissue of teh arms from being on it
--look straight ahead and lift chin
--to determine rotation, examine th posterior aspects of the ribs - radiograph should show superimposed posterior
--patient rotates the hips with the thorax
--points feet directly forward
--turns whole body not hips
You want deep expiration when obtaining chest xrays
False, you want deep inspiration - it shows more air
Why do you ask them to hold their breath on 2nd deep inspiration?
more air is inhaled during a second breath than the first breath
gas or air in pleural cavity
When a pneumothorax is suspected ____ and _____ films may be obtained
inspiration and expiration
Inspiration/Expiration is also used for _____, _________, & ________
diaphragm movement, foreign bodies, & atelectasis
The PA projection of the chest is the most common projection and is used in all ____ and ______ exams
heart and lung
Are right/left obliques used as supplements to the PA chest or is it the main source?
What lateral is the most common projection?
Adequate ___ must be used to penetrate the mediastinum and demonstrate a shadow of the spine
At 72" SID, what is the general kVp used?
quantity (dialing up quantity of electrons)