Flashcards in Chest Wall, Diaphragm, & Breast Deck (24):
In addition to the ribs and sternum, which other bones make up the chest wall?
- the thoracic spine (T1 to T12)
What do the superior and inferior vertebral notches on adjacent vertebrae form?
- the intervertebral foramina
Which rib attaches to the sternum at the sternal angle of Louis? What vertebral level does this occur at?
- rib #2
- occurs at the T4 level
How many pairs of facets does each thoracic vertebra have? What are they?
- 5 pairs
- superior costal facets, inferior costal facets, transverse costal facets, superior articular facets, and inferior articular facets
Name the joint that attaches each rib to the vertebral column.
- costovertebral joint
Name the joint that "fastens" each rib to a vertebra's transverse process.
- costotransverse joint
Name the joint that attaches a rib to the sternum.
- sternochondral joint
Which joint forms the sternal angle of Louis?
- the manubriosternal joint
- (joint between the manubrium and sternum)
What is the only joint between the entire upper limb and the axial (trunk) skeleton?
- the sternoclavicular joint
The striations of the internal intercostals point MEDIALLY/LATERALLY.
- they point laterally/outwards
- "downwards and backwards"
The striations of the external intercostals point MEDIALLY/LATERALLY.
- they point medially/inwards
- "downwards and forwards"
There are three layers of intercostal muscles (external/outer, internal/middle, and innermost/inner), what comprises the innermost layer?
- the innermost intercostals, the subcostals, and the transversus thoracis muscles
Between which two layers of the intercostal muscles do the vessels and nerves run?
- between the innermost/inner and the internal/middle layers
The diaphragm separates which two cavities?
- the thoracic and abdominal cavities
How many arcuate ligaments does the diaphragm have? What are they?
- three arcuate ligaments
- median, medial, and lateral
At what vertebral level does the IVC pierce through the diaphragm? The esophagus? The abdominal aorta?
- IVC: T8
- esophagus: T10
- aorta: T12
- "i ate ten eggs at twelve"
Which nerves supply the diaphragm? Which vertebral level do they arise from?
- the phrenic nerves
- C3, C4, and C5
- "C3, 4, 5 keeps you alive"
Where do the posterior intercostal arteries arise from?
- most arise from the descending thoracic aorta
- the upper one or two arise from the subclavian artery (via the costocervical trunk)
Where do the anterior intercostal arteries arise from?
- the internal thoracic arteries (one on each side) running alongside the sternum
- (each internal thoracic artery comes from each subclavian artery)
Where do most intercostal veins on the right side drain into? What about on the left side?
- right: azygous vein (and then into the SVC)
- left: hemiazygous vein (eventually joins the azygous)
The upper 2 or 3 intercostal veins drain uniquely - where do these usually drain into?
- 1st one: the brachiocephalic vein on each side
- 2nd & 3rd: these veins join up to form a larger vein, which dumps into the azygous vein on the right and into the left brachiocephalic on the left
T or F: like all other ribs, the 1st rib articulates with two vertebrae.
- the 1st rib actually only articulates with only T1
What are the two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery? At what costal level does this occur at?
- branches into the superior epigastric artery and the musculophrenic artery
- occurs at the level of the 6th costal cartilage