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Flashcards in CHF Deck (14):
1

What is forward failure?

the inability of the heart to pump blood forward at a sufficient rate to meet the metabolic demands of the body
-low ejection fraction

2

What is backward failure?

the ability to only do so if the cardiac filling pressures are abnormally high
-high ejection fraction

3

What is the equation for ejection fraction?

(EDV-ESV)/EDV *100

4

What type of heart failure has reducted ejection fraction?

systolic heart failure

5

What type of heart failure has preserved ejection fraction?

diastolic heart failure

6

Which is more compliant right or left ventricle, which can tolerate larger changes in filling without major changes in pressure, which is very susceptible to acute changes in pulmonary vascular resistance?

right

7

What are alterations in ventricular shape and size following acute MI?

Seconds: acute alterations in ventricular dimensions
Hours-weeks: infarct expansion
Weeks-Years: hypertrophy/ dilation of non infarcted segment

8

What is the difference between concentric and eccentric remodeling?

concentric-thick
eccentric-thin
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9

Post MI does regional wall have more stress during the entire cycle?

yes

10

What are some post -MI remodeling that occurs in regional regional hypertrophy/dilation of non infarcted segments?

1. cardiac myocyte hypertrophy
2. cardiac fibroblast hyperplasia
3. perivascular and interstitial fibrosis
4. vascular remodeling and angiogenesis(angiogenesis can't keep up)
5. cardiac myocyte apoptosis

11

What are risk factors for developing post MI ventricular remodeling?

1. infact size
2. ejection fraction day 4
3. infact loaction
4. stroke index day 4
5. TIMI grad

12

Does remodeling precede conjective heart failure?

yes by months to years
-efforts directed at preventing or slowing the progression of ventricular remodeling will prevent or deyal the development of CHF

13

What are some drugs that prevent ventricular remodeling?

ACE inhibit
Beta blockers
aldosterone antagonist

14

What are some drugs that prolong survival?

ACE inhib
Hydralazine+ Nitrates
Beta Blockers
Aldosterone antagonist