Flashcards in Child and youth injury prevention: a public health approach Deck (33):
What is the definition of injury?
"the physical damage that results when a human body is subjected to energy that exceeds the threshold of physiological tolerance or results in lack of one or more vital elements, such as oxygen"
What is an example of a country with strong injury prevention policies and infrastructure?
What is the global burden of injury?
~950 000 children less than 17yo were killed by injury in 2004
What is the burden of injury in Canada?
Leading cause of death
Between 1994-2003 390 children <14yo died of unintentional injuries and 25 500 were hospitalized.
$16 billion cost due to injuries in 2994
What are the leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in children?
1. MVC 17%
2. Drowning 15%
3. Threats to breathing 11%
What is the leading cause of unintentional injury hospitalizations in children?
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury deaths in under 1y?
1. Threat to breathing 54%
2. MVC 18%
3. Drowning 15%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury deaths in 1-4yo?
1. MVC 22%
2. Drowning 21%
3. Threat to breathing 19%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury deaths in 5-9yo?
1. MVC 58%
2. Drowning, Fall, Fire/Flame (6% each)
3. Threat to breathing (5%)
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury deaths in 10-14yo?
1. MVC 55%
2. Drowning 13%
3. Fall 7%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury deaths in 15-19yo?
1. MVC 71%
2. Poisoning 7%
3. Drowning 6%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury hospitalizations in <1yo?
1. Fall 46%
2. Threat to breathing, Fire/Hot Object/Subsance (6% each)
3. Poisoning 5%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury hospitalizations in 1-4yo?
1. Fall 39%
2. Poisoning 15%
3. Fire/Hot object/substance 7%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury hospitalizations in 5-9yo?
1. Fall 56%
2. Struck by/against an obstacle, Pedal cyclist non-traffic (7% each)
3. MVC 7%
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury hospitalizations in 10-14yo?
1. Fall 39%
2. Struck by/against an obstacle 15%
3. MVC, pedal cyclist non-traffic (8% each)
What are the top three causes of unintentional injury hospitalizations in 15-19yo?
1. Fall 24%
2. MVC 21%
3. Struck by/against an obstacle 14%
What is the injury pyramid?
For every death there are many more hospitalization and for every hospitalization there are many more who visit the ED
What is the Haddon matrix?
Phase-Factor matrix of nine-cells looking at host, agent, and environment factors that can prevent or control injuries pre-event, during event, and post-event
What are the leading causal factors for serious and fatal MVC?
1. Driving speed
2. Impaired driving
3. Lack of occupant restraint
What is the reduction in risk of death and hospitalization with car seats?
1. Death: 71% infants 54% 1-4yo
2. Hospitalization: <4yo 67%
What is the improvement of protection for young children with booster seats over seat belts?
What percentage of Canadian children are not using or incorrectly using care and booster seats?
44-81% car seats are used incorrectly
1/3 of 4-9yo do not use a booster seat
92% infants, 74% toddlers, and 96% school aged children sustaining severe MVC injuries were not restrained appropriately at the time of the crash
What is the decrease in risk of traumatic brain injury when wearing a helmet while biking?
How much lower are head injury rates among child and youth cyclists in jurisdictions with helmet legislation?
What percentage of children 11-14% wore bike helmets?
What are risk factors for unintentional injury?
1. Male gender
3. Rural setting
4. Lower SES
Why are males at increased risk of injury?
1. Higher impulsivity
2. Higher activity levels
3. Socialization to encourage risks
4. Boys are more likely to attribute injuries to bad luck then their own choices
Why are Aboriginal children at increased risk of injury?
1. Living in remote areas
2. Distance from medical treatment
3. Housing characteristics
4. Alcohol and substance abuse
Why are rural children at increased risk of injury?
1. Younger children are supervised on work settings
2. Older children are engaged in farm work
3. Higher rates of ATV use
4. Use of farm equipment
What are the E's of injury prevention?
3. Engineering (designing safer products and environments)
What is an active measure?
Requires conscious action by individuals to prevent or minimize the risk of injury e.g. safety belt or booster seat
What is a passive measure?
Do not require an individual to act to prevent injury and are often more effective in situations where active measures are less reliable and inconsistently applied.
e.g. airbags, smoke alarms