Flashcards in Child Psychiatry I & II Deck (27):
To be diagnosed with ADHD, which 5 criteria must be present
1) persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity that interferes with functioning or development
2) several symptoms present prior to age 12
3) several symptoms present in 2+ settings
4) evidence the symptoms interfere w/ or reduce quality of social, academic, or occupational functioning
5) symptoms are not better explained by another disorder
List and describe the 3 behavioral therapies used in ADHD
1) Direct contingency management: reward/reinforcement/punishment
2) teacher training
3) Parent management training -focus on parent-child interactions
What are the 3 criteria needed for diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
1) pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior or vindictiveness lasting at least 6 months, with at least 4 symptoms (e.g. often loses temper, often touchy, easily annoyed, often argues with authority figure, often blames others, has been spiteful vindictive)
2) the disturbance in behavior is assoc w/ distress in the individual or others in his/her immediate social contex or impacts negatively on social, educational, occupational areas
3) no other reason for acting this way
Distinguish btw mild, moderate and severe oppositional defiant disorder
mild ODD -symptoms confined to one setting
moderate ODD -some symptoms present in at least 2 settings
severe ODD -some symptoms present in 3+ settings
What are 3 behavioral treatments for oppositional defiant disorder?
-parent child interaction therapy -teaches authoritative parenting (nurturance, good communication, firm conrol)
-problem solving skills training focusing on cognitive processes (e.g. help kids realize that other kids/ppl are in fact not hostile)
-parent management training
People with oppositional defiant disorder can have what condition when they're adults?
In ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, at least how many respective symptoms need to be present for diagnosis?
ADHD - 6
What 3 criteria are present in conduct disorder?
1) a repetitive & persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-approp societal norms or rules are violated by at least 3 symptoms in the past 12 months (e.g aggression to ppl and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or thefts, serious violations of rules)
2) disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning
3) if the individual is 18+, not CD; instead antisocial personality disorder.
Differentiate btw childhood onset conduct disorder, adolescent onset and unspecified onset
childhood onset - at least 1 symp before 10
adolescent onset -show no symptoms prior to 10
unspecified onset -not enough info to know onset of symptoms was before or after 10
Conduct disorder with limited prosocial emotions must display 2+ of which 4 list of symptoms over at least 12 months in multiple relationships/settings?
-lack of remorse or guilt
-callous -lack of empathy
-unconverned abt performance
-shallow or deficient affect
How to treat conduct disorder?
very hard; requires multi-disciplinary approach:
-multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC)
-functional family therapy
-anger control training
-parent management therapy
-problem solving skills training
What falls under the group "pervasive developmental disorders?" What are pervasive developmental disorders?
Pervasive developmental disorders are neurological disorders characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and rett's disorder.
When is autism typically diagnosed?
within first three years
Is the development of autism associated with income level, lifestyle and educational levels?
What are some characteristics of autism?
-does not babble or coo by 12 months
-does not gesture (point, wave, grasp) by 12 months
-does not say single words by 16 months or 2-word phrases by 24 months
-has any loss of any language or social skill at any age
-does not display pretend play
-does not point at objects to indicate interest
-insistence on sameness
-difficulty in expressing needs
-inappropriate attachments to or engagement w/ objects
What's Asperger's disorder?
-part of autism spectrum disorder
-no delays in language or other communication problems
-tend to have above avg IQ
-restricted range of interests
What is childhood disintegrative disorder?
It's a subtype of autism manifested as marked regression in multiple areas following 2 years of normal development (normal speech, play, social and adaptive behavior); After 2 years old, lose at least 2 previously held skills (usu. lose skills in all areas); then this disorder starts resembling autism.
What is Rett's disorder?
It occurs primarily in girls
there's a period of normal functioning following birth-5 months, but then they develop specific deficits after.
after 5 months, head growth rate decelerates, gradually lose previously acquired hand skills, and develop problems w/ social interactions, locomotion, and language
There are no medical tests for diagnosing autism. What are some things that are evaluated to see if someone might have autism.
-autism diagnostic interview-r
-home and/or school observation
-video analysis of behavioral observation
What's the most effective way to acquire new behavior in the treatment of symptoms of autism?
Discrete trial instruction aka Applied behavioral analysis
What's the 3 criteria to diagnose mental retardation?
-subavg intellectural functioning (IQ at or below 70)
-deficits in adaptive functioning (2+)
-onset before age 18
How to distinguish btw mild, moderate and severe and profound mental retardation?
1) Mild MR (IQ: 50-55-70)
-most ppl with mental retardation have mild
-similar to non-MR kids for first few years of life, but could only achieve to about 6th grade academic level
-can support self w/ minimal supervision
2) Moderate MR (IQ: 35-40 - 50-55)
-academic skills up to 2nd grade
-can perform unskilled or semi-skilled tasks under supervision
3) Severe MR (IQ: 20-25 - 35-40)
-can learn to count or read
-can acquire some basic self-help skills like eating
-require assistance for most activities and daily life
4) profound MR (IQ below 20-25)
-may have difficulty w/ simple tasks, even under close supervision
-need significant training to develop vocational, self-care, and communication skills
-function best in highly-structured settings
What is challenging behavior and how is it related to autism?
challenging behaviors are repetitive behaviors tht are considered essential features of autism. It is an "associated" feature of autism. Examples include self-injury, aggression, property destruction, pica.
A common type of challenging behavior is self-injurious behavior (SIB). What is it?
an act in which an individual deliberately produces physical damage to his or her own body.
What is stereotypic movement disorder?
motor disorder with onset in childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in bodily injury
A common type of challenging behavior is destructive behavior. What is it?
An individual physically harms another person (aggression) or the immediate environment (disruption).