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Flashcards in China Three Gorges Dam Deck (52):
1

How long did it take to complete the dam?

17 years

2

When was the dam completed?

2009

3

How long is the dam?

2.3 km

4

How high is the dam?

> 100 m high

5

How much water in the reservoir?

> 1 trillion

6

2 reasons for construction of dam

- prevent seasonal flooding which caused deaths
- HEP for central and eastern China

7

2 social pros of dam

1. Reduced risk of flooding
2. Reservoir increases water availability

8

By how much has the risk of flooding reduced?

1 in 10 years ---> 1 in 100

9

How many people were affected and how many died in 1954 floods?

19 M affected

30,000 deaths

10

What can the reservoir water be used for? (3)

Irrigation, industry and consumption

11

How many people have more water and in which part of China due to dam?

400 million in water deficient northern China

12

3 economic advantages of dam

1. HEP
2. Improved navigation along river
3. Increased tourism

13

How much electricity does the dam generate per hour?

84 billion KW of electricity per hour

14

How many people does the dam supply energy to who previously had no power?

60 million people

15

How many nuclear power plants is the HEP from the dam equivalent

15

16

How much further upstream can ships travel and why?

6000 km

River deeper

17

By how much has trade increased due to the dam?

Transportation of goods increased from 10M to 50M tonnes per year

18

How much have transportation costs been reduced by?

Between 30 and 37% cheaper

19

By how much has the max ship size allowed on the river increased?

Max was 1500 ton

Now 10,000 ton

20

Why and to where has tourism increased?

- Reservoir view pleasing
- Largest dam
- Ocean vessels can travel further inland and reach Chongqing

21

1 environmental pro of dam

Reduced use of non renewable resources in future due to cleaner and renewable HEP

22

How much CO2 prevented if dam used to full capacity?

100 M tons

23

How many tonnes of coal is equivalent to the dam turbines?

40 M tonnes

24

4 social cons of dam

- People displaced
- Towns and villages flooded
- Risk of landslides
- Loss of historical sites

25

How many people displaced for reservoir and from how many villages?

1.2 M people from over 10 villages

26

How many more people will be displaced by 2020 and why?

530,000 people to relieve pressure on weak slopes

27

How many towns did the reservoir submerge?

140 towns

28

Which city was flooded and by how much was water level raised by?

Wuhan

Water level raised by 600 foot

29

By how much has the risk of landslide increased and why?

70%

Due to water level reaching 175 meters

30

When was there a landslide and how many people did it kill?

2007

48 killed

31

How many historical sites destroyed

1300

32

What effect has the loss of historical sites had?

Reduced tourism

33

3 economic cons

- Huge cost
- Farmland flooded
- Poverty

34

What was the overall cost of the dam?

$37 billion

35

Why was the flooded farmland important for China?

It provided 70% China's rice crop

36

How much farmland was lost?

14,500 hectares

37

Were relocated farmers given good land?

NO - they were given steep slopes = reduction in food production

38

What percentage of the relocatees live in extreme poverty?

70%

39

What led to urban slums?

Promises of land and jobs to relocatees not met

40

4 environmental cons

1. Reduced sediment downstream
2. Altered ecosystem = endangered species
3. Silt deposited in reservoir
4. Pollution

41

By how much did sediment downstream reduce and between when?

By 50%

1998 - 2004

42

Why is the building up of sediment behind the dam problematic?

- Need dredging to remove it so dam doesn't fail
- More erosion downstream as faster flow due to less sediment= levees eroded = flooding more likely

43

2 species endangered

Giant panda, Yangtze Dolphin

44

How many species of fish near extinction and why?

Migration of fish disrupted

6 species near extinction (2003 study showed)

45

2 problems with silt deposited in reservoir

- Not deposited on farmland = less fertile
- Reduces storage ability

46

How much silt into reservoir per year

530 million tonnes

47

How much untreated waste does which city dump in river each year?

Chongqing dumps 1 billion tonnes

48

How does pollution of river affect wildlife.

Leads to algae booms

Kills wildlife

49

Should the dam have been built?

No

50

6 reasons why the dam shouldn't have been built

- Not used to full capacity due to droughts = full benefits not seen
- 12% resettlement budget embezzled
- Human costs > economic benefits
- Knock on effects have reversed benefits of flood control
- Cost of project won't be repaid by amount of HEP
- Huge impact on environment - should have chosen sustainable approach

51

How much of resettlement budget embezzled?

12%

52

What river and location?

Yangtze River, Hubei province