Flashcards in China Three Gorges Dam Deck (52):
How long did it take to complete the dam?
When was the dam completed?
How long is the dam?
How high is the dam?
> 100 m high
How much water in the reservoir?
> 1 trillion
2 reasons for construction of dam
- prevent seasonal flooding which caused deaths
- HEP for central and eastern China
2 social pros of dam
1. Reduced risk of flooding
2. Reservoir increases water availability
By how much has the risk of flooding reduced?
1 in 10 years ---> 1 in 100
How many people were affected and how many died in 1954 floods?
19 M affected
What can the reservoir water be used for? (3)
Irrigation, industry and consumption
How many people have more water and in which part of China due to dam?
400 million in water deficient northern China
3 economic advantages of dam
2. Improved navigation along river
3. Increased tourism
How much electricity does the dam generate per hour?
84 billion KW of electricity per hour
How many people does the dam supply energy to who previously had no power?
60 million people
How many nuclear power plants is the HEP from the dam equivalent
How much further upstream can ships travel and why?
By how much has trade increased due to the dam?
Transportation of goods increased from 10M to 50M tonnes per year
How much have transportation costs been reduced by?
Between 30 and 37% cheaper
By how much has the max ship size allowed on the river increased?
Max was 1500 ton
Now 10,000 ton
Why and to where has tourism increased?
- Reservoir view pleasing
- Largest dam
- Ocean vessels can travel further inland and reach Chongqing
1 environmental pro of dam
Reduced use of non renewable resources in future due to cleaner and renewable HEP
How much CO2 prevented if dam used to full capacity?
100 M tons
How many tonnes of coal is equivalent to the dam turbines?
40 M tonnes
4 social cons of dam
- People displaced
- Towns and villages flooded
- Risk of landslides
- Loss of historical sites
How many people displaced for reservoir and from how many villages?
1.2 M people from over 10 villages
How many more people will be displaced by 2020 and why?
530,000 people to relieve pressure on weak slopes
How many towns did the reservoir submerge?
Which city was flooded and by how much was water level raised by?
Water level raised by 600 foot
By how much has the risk of landslide increased and why?
Due to water level reaching 175 meters
When was there a landslide and how many people did it kill?
How many historical sites destroyed
What effect has the loss of historical sites had?
3 economic cons
- Huge cost
- Farmland flooded
What was the overall cost of the dam?
Why was the flooded farmland important for China?
It provided 70% China's rice crop
How much farmland was lost?
Were relocated farmers given good land?
NO - they were given steep slopes = reduction in food production
What percentage of the relocatees live in extreme poverty?
What led to urban slums?
Promises of land and jobs to relocatees not met
4 environmental cons
1. Reduced sediment downstream
2. Altered ecosystem = endangered species
3. Silt deposited in reservoir
By how much did sediment downstream reduce and between when?
1998 - 2004
Why is the building up of sediment behind the dam problematic?
- Need dredging to remove it so dam doesn't fail
- More erosion downstream as faster flow due to less sediment= levees eroded = flooding more likely
2 species endangered
Giant panda, Yangtze Dolphin
How many species of fish near extinction and why?
Migration of fish disrupted
6 species near extinction (2003 study showed)
2 problems with silt deposited in reservoir
- Not deposited on farmland = less fertile
- Reduces storage ability
How much silt into reservoir per year
530 million tonnes
How much untreated waste does which city dump in river each year?
Chongqing dumps 1 billion tonnes
How does pollution of river affect wildlife.
Leads to algae booms
Should the dam have been built?
6 reasons why the dam shouldn't have been built
- Not used to full capacity due to droughts = full benefits not seen
- 12% resettlement budget embezzled
- Human costs > economic benefits
- Knock on effects have reversed benefits of flood control
- Cost of project won't be repaid by amount of HEP
- Huge impact on environment - should have chosen sustainable approach
How much of resettlement budget embezzled?