Chp 16 Future of Proactive Police Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp 16 Future of Proactive Police Management Deck (70):
1

***START***
The _________ is a series of strategies that includes cost-effective concentration of administration, human resources, laboratory services, corruption and police brutality intervention, and training services for police departments.

proactive community police response

2

The proactive community police response is a series of strategies...It includes the following:
• Deployment of _________, including giving more authority to remote unit supervisors; human service/ communication training for officers, supervisors, and police managers
• Proactive ______ and _______ to anticipate planned and unplanned events, including critical incidents and intelligence and hot spot management; centralized rapid- response teams with maximum equipment and human relations experts organized for instant deployment
• Greater interactions with p______, a_______, and c______.
• Major ________ who are highly educated and professionally trained and move from one major police department to another— whether public or private— throughout the country.

community policing

planning and intelligence

private police, auxiliary police, and community volunteers

police executives

3

The Proactive Community Police Response:

________ and ________will dominate future policing trends.

Cyber activity and technology

4

The global world is here to stay with instant communication and affordable transportation. The pace of change for the postindustrial generation is staggering. This is a scenario for America and other industrial and postindustrial countries. The overwhelming majority of the world’s population lives in _______ conditions, with access to modern communications. Thus they have jumped into the twenty- first century with cell phones, Wi- Fi, satellite communication services, and flat screens.

preindustrial

5

Thus, we must never forget that policing is _____ and both _____ and ______. That globe is shrinking every day.

global and both private and public

6

What does the future hold for law enforcement managers? Given current trends, it is expected that police departments may be changed or organized along the lines presented in this chapter in the not- so- distant future. We believe that this will result in effective community policing, given the socioeconomic, political, and technological trends. However, the major thrust for change will be the demands made by __________ to continue to provide the police services demanded by citizens.

cost- conscious municipal governments

7

POLICE DEPARTMENT CONSIDERATIONS: This abundance of forces is the historical result of our federal system of government and the wish of local communities to have control over their police. These realities of a democratic republic produce common problems of ______ and _________.

concurrent jurisdiction and duplication of effort

8

...citizens of the many townships across the country have two or more options when they need the police. ...As a result, there exist these organizational realities in American policing today:
1. _______ exists between police organizations for calls, resources, and, at times, personnel.
2. _______ are arranged by formal and informal agreements between agencies. For example, while the state police have statewide jurisdiction, many will normally not answer calls in a village that has a police department; the village police, in the same light, will not go outside municipal limits except in pursuit of an offender.
3. _______, usually based on how well certain officers or agency heads get along, determine the distribution of intelligence information, assistance to other departments during emergencies, and the success or failure of interagency projects.

Active competition

De facto spheres of influence

Informal relationships

9

This financial crisis of 2008 has reached new proportions created in part by _______ which reduced aid to state and local municipalities.

a number of policies on the federal level— such as housing—

10

All in all, proactive police managers of the future will have to offer police services in an _____ and _______ way; that is, they will be required by their citizenry and elected officials to do more with less.

effective and economical way

11

The Jurisdictional Dilemma: The existence of too many police departments results in ________ for many areas in the United States. Many argue for this, especially small- town politicians and police chiefs, who use the ______ argument to keep this jumbled, inefficient system intact.We predicted in the first edition of our book that many municipalities would merge their police department with other governmental units or abolish the department outright. This has not occurred, mainly because of ______.

duplication of services

home rule

home rule

12

In some situations, municipal entities have debated on merging or simply going out of business but there is not much activity across the country. Police departments are now subject to similar action, but there are some alternatives available for communities that wish to retain their local police. One common way is to share ______; for example, computerized record keeping, communications, vehicle acquisition and repair, supplies, equipment, and even laboratory and training facilities.

centralized services

13

A trend that is always discussed is ________, as when two or more departments are disbanded and merged into an area or county metropolitan police department. Departments that have undergone this process include those in Nassau and Suffolk Counties in New York; Riley County, Kentucky; Jacksonville, Florida; Charlotte- Mecklenburg, North Carolina; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Toronto, Ontario. While this may sound easy, consolidation can be a very arduous process and is always based on the ________.

police consolidation

political will to meet an objective

14

Although there is potential for increasing police efficiency by reducing duplication of effort, consolidation does not always result in _______. From the outset, it can be expensive.....Interestingly enough, _______ is revised with the creation of a consolidated police force, which results in new patrol zones, shifts, duty assignments, and attitudes in dealing with situations.

economy

departmental subculture

15

What this all means is that the concept of consolidation can be feasible where there are high concentrations of people or businesses that create a _________.

single socioeconomic municipality

16

Many communities in the United States contract for police services from another municipality. The basic considerations in determining contractual services are the following:
1. _______ related to contract agreements
2. _______ to be used in charging for such services as patrol, traffic, criminal investigations, and so on
3. _____ and ______ various issues that come with normal policing ( e. g., interruption of services, liability, physical plant needs, personnel requirements)
4. Determining ________ for continuance of the contract ( e. g., lower crime rate, citizen satisfaction with services)

Statutory provisions

Formulas

Planning and resolving

performance criteria

17

Since the 1970s, a number of feasibility studies were undertaken over the issue of contractual services. According to the National Sheriff ’ s Association, there are the following types of contractual arrangements:
• ________.

• ______ or ________. Perhaps the most common contractual arrangement in the United States occurs when a county sheriff or police department provides police services to municipalities in the county on a shared- expense or contributory- expense arrangement.
• _________ program. Small towns that do not have a police department may contract for one or more full- time police officers from the state police or county sheriff ’s department. Expenses paid for these officers by the township are usually one- half the total cost of each person. In some cases, the officers receive a bonus if they reside in the contractual area.

City to city

County to city or county to region

Resident officer

18

In 2003, the International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP) undertook a review of consolidation case studies and focused on consolidation efforts....From this review, the following consolidation models were presented: F______ — functional units such as dispatching or crime scene analysis being combined for two or more agencies.
C_______/ M_______ Zone/ O__________— sworn officers are pooled so that personnel from one department can make arrests and provide backup in another adjacent jurisdiction. This often occurs with campus police departments that have a large student population living off- campus.
P______— fire, police, and emergency medical services are combined under one agency. This public safety model was a rage in the early 1970s when some newly created jurisdictions were set up in the west and southwest of the United States.
L_______— two or more agencies combine their police operations.
R_______— a number of agencies are combined into a new police regional entity based on geography.
M______— two or more agencies combine into one large agency for a major metropolitan area. This is what occurred in Toronto, Ontario, and Las Vegas, Nevada. G_______— the entire governments of two or more municipalities are combined into one new political unit.

Functional— functional units such as dispatching or crime scene analysis being combined for two or more agencies.
Cross Deputization/ Mutual Enforcement Zone/ Overlapping Jurisdictions— sworn officers are pooled so that personnel from one department can make arrests and provide backup in another adjacent jurisdiction. This often occurs with campus police departments that have a large student population living off- campus.
Public Safety— fire, police, and emergency medical services are combined under one agency. This public safety model was a rage in the early 1970s when some newly created jurisdictions were set up in the west and southwest of the United States.
Local Merger— two or more agencies combine their police operations.
Regional— a number of agencies are combined into a new police regional entity based on geography.
Metropolitan— two or more agencies combine into one large agency for a major metropolitan area. This is what occurred in Toronto, Ontario, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Government— the entire governments of two or more municipalities are combined into one new political unit.

19

One of the main findings of the IACP study is the need to gauge community opinion and to air the strengths and weaknesses of consolidation. A “______ approach” was created whereby community members can meet and address the following questions:
1. Who will _____ the new department?
2. How will the chief and other command personnel be _______?
3. What will be the initial and long- term _______?
4. How will officers from the “ old” departments be _____ and _______ in the new agency configurations? Will there be new or continued special units?
5. How will ______and review be achieved?
6. How will the new department be _______ in terms of providing services and reducing crime?

focus group

1. Who will oversee the new department?
2. How will the chief and other command personnel be chosen?
3. What will be the initial and long- term operating costs? 4. How will officers from the “ old” departments be merged and deployed in the new agency configurations? Will there be new or continued special units?
5. How will citizen involvement and review be achieved? 6. How will the new department be evaluated in terms of providing services and reducing crime?

20

A major issue that also needs to be addressed is the many state and local laws and regulations that relate to the _______of a police department. This also includes addressing collective bargaining or personnel work agreements related to wages, benefits, and conditions of employment that were explored in Chapter 15 .

creation

21

What may drive the move for consolidation or shared services in many communities are the costs for _______ and ________. At this time, these costs account for about ____ percent or more in addition to the regular salary.

pensions and medical care

30

22

The technological revolution continues to revise police practices. Even the smallest of departments have embraced microcomputing systems and workstations. We see no end in sight to the various adaptations that can be accomplished. Nevertheless, police managers have to be _______ of this new technology .

informed consumers

23

Although managers are not expected to know how to tear apart a computer terminal system, they should know the strengths and weaknesses of implementing a ________ for a department or division. They need to know about _________ to experiment with new methodologies that deal with budgets, crime trends, personnel records, and so on.

computerized records system

basic programming

24

As we talk about technology and policing, we must not lose sight of the need for greater interaction between ______ and their ________. One program that has assisted in this endeavor is ________ ( some might say a rather low- tech program), which on college campuses and in densely populated areas has received high marks for increasing visibility and officer– citizen interaction.

citizens and their police officers

bicycle patrol

25

It is now possible for every patrol vehicle to be equipped with a miniature computer- augmented mobile radio that relays an automatic signal back to the communications center giving the location of the vehicle on an electronic map of the metropolitan area. Computerized crime analysis also permits this map to be keyed to show a great variety of characteristics to facilitate planning. Some of these are the following:
1. Street and map response time ____.
2. _______ grid related to demographic characteristics and time of crime commitment
3. Time, place, and nature of crimes shown by _____ and _______ for easy identification, with listings of burglaries, robberies, traffic deaths, juvenile crimes, and other grids available at the punch of a button
4. _______ vehicles: density, distribution, and vital statistics of population
5. _______ grids for traffic control, civilian disasters, and energy blackouts available for planners if a disaster or traffic stoppage occurred
6. All this available on encrypted, ________ computers.

grid

Modus operandi

number and color

Demographic

Trend- analysis

handheld palm

26

Reflecting the state of the art for ________, all homes and businesses can be linked to a central dispatch system in a police- approved, computer- based remote linkage system.

cable television

27

Personnel Standards
Given the current trends in positive personnel selection, it is possible that we may see the following personnel standards in the future:
1. ______or _____degree being demanded of all recruits.
2. Men and women being assigned to all facets of the p______and promoted to specialty units and c____and s____positions all on an equal basis.
3. The police recruit selection process placing less emphasis on pencil- and- paper tests and more emphasis on testing by r___, i____, a_____, and other a_______methods.

1. Associate’s or bachelor’s
2.police mission
command and supervisory
3.role- play, interview, aptitude, and other assessment- center

28

Personnel Standards
More l_____between police departments on a state and national level would increase the pool of available candidates for line, staff, and managerial positions.

lateral entry

29

Personnel Standards
Reflecting current trends in patrol officer selection, police managers of the future will also be the products of a_______and h________.

advanced managerial training and higher education

30

Personnel Standards
P______ testing, role- plays involving m____problems, and o__review boards will be the rule for selection rather than the exception.

Psychological
managerial
oral

31

Personnel Standards
Psychological testing, role- plays involving managerial problems, and oral review boards will be the rule for selection rather than the exception. This cadre of police executives will be highly m____ in that a police executive could be “ chief ” at a number of departments during a law enforcement career, with minor or extended excursions into industry and teaching.

mobile

32

Personnel Standards
Selection for s_____ and a_____ staff members will also reflect some changes. Again, less reliance will be placed on pencil- and- paper tests and years of experience.

supervisors and administrative

33

Personnel Standards
Requirements for future hiring of supervisors and administrative staff members might be the following:
• A master’s degree in p____ or a related field
• Three years of experience in police p____, p_____, or I_____
• Successful completion of the s_____training academy for police patrol officers and supervisors, with some states issuing licenses that have to be renewed on a timely basis

police administration
planning, patrol, or investigations
state- certified

34

Personnel Standards
Individuals who show a_______would be “ tracked” into a departmental executive development program that would provide for future executives a rational combination of in- class training and field exposure to all facets of the police mission.

administrative talent

35

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING Twenty- first- century technology gives the proactive police manager the tools to c_______.

control events

36

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
The first principle of the proactive management model is that police management is always in charge of t______.

technology

37

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
The first principle of the proactive management model is that police management is always in charge of technology. Technology should never be allowed to drive police management p______.

police management policy

38

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Police management in the twenty- first century will be both data driven and based on the rapid c_______

communication of information.

39

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Police management in the twenty- first century will be both data driven and based on the rapid communication of information. This means that all justifiable policies and procedures will be c_____ based. Police officers deal with human beings, often in stressful situations. Officers will need to be grounded in the social sciences and human behavioral studies.

computer

40

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Police management in the twenty- first century will be both data driven and based on the rapid communication of information. This means that all justifiable policies and procedures will be computer based. Police officers deal with human beings, often in stressful situations. Officers will need to be grounded in the s______-and h_____ studies.

social sciences and human behavioral

41

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
As a ______- based criminal justice social service, police departments and police management need the latest in technology for both communications and planning.

community-

42

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
With scarce resources, the _____needs to keep doing what works and stop doing what does not work.

police manager

43

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
With scarce resources, the police manager needs to keep doing what works and stop doing what does not work. Unlike the r______technology of the past, the twenty- first- century approaches, focused on the individual officers and field units, change rapidly and are extremely flexible.

rigid computer mainframe

44

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
. Unlike the rigid computer mainframe technology of the past, the twenty- first- century approaches, focused on the individual officers and field units, change rapidly and are extremely flexible. To make full use of this new technology, police management will have to decentralize daily decision making down to the line officers, their immediate supervisors, and individual field units. C_____ communications, a solid f_____ system, and p_____, f______ written departmental rules will make this system work.

Centralized
feedback
proactive, flexible

45

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
A proactive department is a d______-driven department, with its human side being provided by community policing. This department ( 1) lowers crime through good management and the proactive use of technology and ( 2) has the community set the agenda for the police department

data- driven

46

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Digital technology is now available in every police car. Individually, personnel c____ and r____devices will be carried by every officer in the near future.

communication and recording

47

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
A proactive department is a data- driven department, with its human side being provided by community policing. This department ( 1) lowers crime through good m_______and the p_______of technology and
( 2) has the c______ set the agenda for the police department

management and the proactive use of technology
community

48

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
A community- based problem- solving approach will create the twenty- first century p______ police department.

proactive

49

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
A community- based problem- solving approach will create the twenty- first- century proactive police department. This department will be ___oriented, focusing on the same goal as the first nineteenth- century professional police department.

goal

50

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
The 1829 Metropolitan London Police Department’s goal was the_______rather than just the apprehension of criminals. Prevention is proactive, while apprehension is reactive because apprehension comes after the crime has been committed.

prevention of crime

51

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
The 1829 Metropolitan London Police Department’s goal was the prevention of crime rather than just the apprehension of criminals. Prevention is _____, while apprehension is ______because apprehension comes after the crime has been committed.

proactive
reactive

52

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Compstat is viewed as the most successful use of crime mapping. It is available to other departments now, and will work even more effectively in the future when combined with the newest laptop and cellular information technology with continuing feedback. Crime- mapping approaches can also enhance community policing when ___________

community policing guidelines are added

53

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Compstat is viewed as the most successful use of crime mapping.

Compstat

54

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Crime maps can be made available to citizen groups to provide crucial information to crime problems in specific neighborhoods, towns, and villages. Two major documents published in 1998 by ______(L.S.) help set the stage for this new approach: Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising and Evidence Based Policing .

Larry Sherman

55

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Crime maps can be made available to citizen groups to provide crucial information to crime problems in specific neighborhoods, towns, and villages. Two major documents published in 1998 by Larry Sherman help set the stage for this new approach: _________ and _____..

Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising and
Evidence Based Policing

56

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Crime maps can be made available to citizen groups to provide crucial information to crime problems in specific neighborhoods, towns, and villages. Two major documents published in 1998 by Larry Sherman help set the stage for this new approach: Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising and Evidence Based Policing . This approach, which is enhanced by computer mapping, is to base crime- reducing strategies on ______and ______.

hard data and scientific evidence

57

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Going after l______ who allow drugs on their property works. Working with public housing authorities to drive out the drug dealers and penalize the landlords works. Focusing extra _______on what Sherman calls “ hot spots” works. Hot spots, or places where crime is concentrated, may be determined by the high percentage of police calls to a bar or public housing project, for example.

landlords
police presence

58

WHAT WORKS AND EVIDENCE- BASED POLICING
Preventing Crime ( Sherman, 1998b ) was based on a review of 500 prevention programs using standard data- based scientific criteria. Some of the nonpolice programs that diminished criminal behavior were a_______campaigns in schools, teaching s_____and stress management skills, ex- offender j________, and t______programs in prisons for adult drug addicts.

antibullying campaigns in schools, teaching social competence and stress management skills, ex- offender job training for older males, and therapeutic community treatment programs in prisons for adult drug addicts

59

Going after ______ who allow drugs on their property works. Working with _________ to drive out the drug dealers and penalize the landlords works. Focusing extra police presence on what Sherman calls _____ works. Hot spots, or places where crime is concentrated, may be determined by the high percentage of police calls to a bar or public housing project, for example.

landlords

public housing authorities

“ hot spots”

60

Arresting employed suspects for family violence who live in the suburbs works, but arresting __________ in the inner city increases family violence and does not work. Some favorite police programs do not work.

unemployed, minority suspects

61

Mobilizing inner- city residents to stop crime, gun buy- back programs, Drug Abuse Resistance Education ( DARE), neighborhood watch, store-front police offices, and police newsletters with local crime information do _______. Crime prevention that is based on _____ works.

not work

data

62

Crime prevention that is based on good feelings is a ________ program rather than a crime prevention program. This is partly what is meant by a proactive data- driven police department: Do what works based on _______, not on public relations or good feelings. This also means that police departments need to evaluate police policy based on ______ and ________.

public relations

data

data and scientific evidence

63

According to Sherman, “ Evidence- based policing is the use of the best available research on the ______ of police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units and officers . . . . Evidence- based policing uses _______ to guide practice and evaluate practitioners.” He wants to create a _________ using the evaluation of outcomes to change police practices.

outcomes

research

feedback loop

64

We cannot continue to fund police programs that are documented as failures while we have police programs that have been _________. This is how an evidence- based police department works to justify choices by police managers.

documented as successes

65

Sherman shows what data he would refer to in evidence- based policing : “ offenses per 1,000 residents, repeat victimization per 100 offenders, and so on.” If you complain about how an officer handles a call but have no data, it is a negative remark with _______.

negative out-comes

66

Sherman’s evidence- based policing and proactive data- based police management focus on _______. If police managers want to have a police department that actually solves ongoing community problems, part of every problem- solving approach needs to include ________.

outcomes

data- based evaluations

67

Sherman says that successful approaches to problem solving have to be ________. Police management can no longer consider each problem to be unique to every police department.

generalized

68

Sherman says that most police practices are “ still shaped by ______,______, and ______.” He is looking for a new data- driven approach based on implementation evaluations as well as experimental evidence.

local custom, opinion theories and subjective impressions

69

One study conducted by Sherman found that offenders who felt that the police did not treat them fairly committed ____ percent more incidents of family violence than those who felt that they were treated fairly. Sherman recommended creating guidelines for police procedure concerning the ___________.

60 percent

fair treatment of suspects in family violence incidents.

70

If the police management goal is to decrease repeat instances of family violence, then different procedures and policies have to be tried until police management identifies the ones that work. From time to time, the new policy will have to be evaluated to see
( 1) whether it is _______ and
( 2) what may be _______ and _______ the implementation of each successful policy.

still working

hindering and helping