Chp 3 Art and Style of Proactive Leadership Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp 3 Art and Style of Proactive Leadership Deck (113):
1

***START***
One of the critical management issues of today is ______.

leadership

2

Reflecting on leadership as described by Amitai Etzioni, Richard Hall points out that leadership is a special form of power closely related to the ability of the leader to elicit the followers’_______in a broad range of matters.

voluntary compliance

3

Perusing our personal libraries, we came up with over 30 different definitions of leadership. Simply summarized, leadership is the ability to ________.

get things done under the right circumstances

4

_________ anticipate day- to- day events. They do not wait for events to reach them; they plan for events. They form a team that is flexible enough to seek a wide variety of solutions to the every-day problems of police management. This entails a deep commitment to __________ so that the eventual crises that do reach their desks do not overwhelm them.

Proactive leaders

contingency planning

5

To exercise this proactive leadership, five essential areas of competence are needed:
• A____
• T_____
• E_____
• E_____
• T_____

• Authority
• Talent
• Experience
• Ethics
• Training and education

6

Authority in an organization can be exercised in two ways: ________or___________.

through the person of the officeholder or through the office itself

7

Max Weber’s concept of charismatic authority is one of the earliest and clearest conceptions of authority being exercised through the person rather than the office. Weber describes the three major bases for legitimate authority:
1. R______
2. T______
3. C_______

1. Rational grounds , which rest on a belief in the “ legality” of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority under such rules to issue commands ( legal authority)
2. Traditional grounds , which rest on an established belief in the sanctity of immemorial traditions and the legitimacy of the status of those exercising authority under them ( traditional authority)
3. Charismatic grounds , which rest on devotion to the specific and exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character of an individual person ( charismatic authority)

8

According to Weber, “ In its pure form, charismatic authority has a character specifically foreign to _________. The social relationships directly involved are strictly personal.”

everyday routine structures

9

To create stability in the organization, charismatic authority needs to be channeled into the mechanics of a _________, thus taking on all the trappings of legitimate authority based on legal and rational grounds. Charismatic authority, with its reliance on personal relationships, creates inconsistent policies based on personal whims and often breaks down.

routine bureaucracy

10

Over time, the charismatic figure institutes the normal legalistic aspects of a rational bureaucracy, namely ( 1) a set of w______ that persist over time and that are adhered to, ( 2) a clearly identified set of a_______ with their authority specifically defined and limited, and ( 3) a h_________ with publicly known operational lines of authority.

written rules

administrative officials

hierarchical organization

11

Modern, organized society, however, is basically a bureaucratic society based on rational ________ .

legal authority

12

A talented police leader is one who also has a ___________. He or she must be able to understand theoretical concepts as they relate to the job and be able to create abstract plans and operationalize these plans. This involves a high degree of abstract manipulation of data and the ability to comprehend and make the most use of the computer age.

high degree of intelligence.

13

Talented police leaders must also have what has been called a certain ________; that is, they have to have a grasp of politics and be pragmatic problem solvers. They must also be ________— that is, individuals who truly want to get the job done.

native shrewdness

goal oriented

14

A leader must have a sense of _____and _____to get the job done amid conflicting pressures. Our police leaders must also be excellent ________. They need to be clear and forceful yet be able to listen and understand other points of view. Their ideas of leadership need to be marketed just as ____and _____ market ideas.

fair play and balance

communicators

business and industry

15

Management skills are developed through the exercise of______ and_______ experience.

management and administrative

16

The operational and technical skills needed for administrators must be superseded by the necessary _______and _______skills needed to manage a police department.

human relations and conceptual

17

Some of this lack of experience can be made up with a good management training program. Police leaders can be trained in how to draw up and present a budget, in what is necessary in exercising leadership skills in relation to personnel, and in what goes into such items as contingency planning and communication networks. Thus, what is necessary in the exercise of proactive police leadership is a careful blend of a____, e_____, e____, and, finally, t___________.

ability, experience, ethics, and, finally, training and education.

18

Police leaders are promoted, appointed, and elected, in most cases, without any _________.

further training in management skills

19

The specific management skills based on recent deliberations on executive training are as follows:
• Police chief as _____
• ______ of personnel
• P______ administration
• B_______
• S_____ and _____ planning
• Marketing services to the community through t______ and e______ means.
• E_______ command situations
• Legal issues involving o_____ and p______
• Planning for and upgrading p__________

• Police chief as leader
• Motivation of personnel
• Personnel administration
• Budgeting
• Strategic and short- term planning
• Marketing services to the community through traditional and electronic means
• Emergency command situations
• Legal issues involving operations and personnel administration
• Planning for and upgrading police technology

20

There is a need for ______________courses for newly promoted police executives. These should be readily available on a systematic, recurring, and regional basis.

systematic leadership/ management

21

Upon promotion, new administrators should have the opportunity to attend a _________.

regionally based or state training academy

22

In addition to management skills, police chief candidates must also be able to define what the ________ of the future is. As Garner discusses, this ________ includes communicating a clear mission statement that is derived from discussion with employees and community leaders.

department’s organizational vision

vision

23

There is a great deal of overlap in this area with communication models, since the style of police leadership is directly linked to the _________.

communication process within the agency.

24

When communication goes from the top to the bottom, with no feedback system, for example, the management style tends toward the ______and _______. When communication is two- way, ongoing, and considered to be effective in deciding policy between equals in an organizational structure, the management style tends toward the _________.

hierarchical and autocratic

democratic team approach

25

The following 13 approaches will be examined in terms of their applicability to the art and style of proactive police leadership:
1. D______
2. L_______
3. E_______
4. M_______
5. D_______
6. E_______
7. T_______
8. R_______
9. K________
10. M_______
11. H________
12. M_______
13. T_______

1. Dispersed leadership
2. Leadership and Giving
3. Effective leadership
4. Managing in chaos
5. Digital nervous system
6. Emotional intelligence
7. Total quality management ( TQM)
8. Reengineering
9. Katz’s three skills approach
10. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
11. Herzberg’s hygiene/ motivators approach to job satisfaction
12. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
13. Theory Z

26

The main idea behind ________ is that all members of an organization are leaders. Whether a person is a dispatcher, patrol officer, field supervisor, or chief, operational policing requires all its members to make decisions, take actions, and be held accountable for what occurs. This forms the basis for the Leadership in Police Organizations course that was created by the _________ .

dispersed leadership

International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP)

27

As discussed at a national summit (IACP) held in 2005, dispersed leadership is based on the following concepts:
Shared ______
Commitment to ______
Recognition of ______
Focus on ______

Shared understanding.
Commitment to shared goals and values.
Recognition of the different styles of leadership.
Focus on the individual and the organization.

28

Common definitions and knowledge are needed to discuss what leadership is all about.

Shared understanding.

29

Members of an organization should understand the basic tenets of a department’s mission and values.

Commitment to shared goals and values.

30

This deals with the reality that people lead in different ways based on rank, job category, and the situation at hand. As discussed, “ leaders at different levels of the organization do different things and lead in different ways, ranging from face- to- face leadership to indirect leadership with infrequent personal contact”. Thus, leadership training must adapt to various roles and levels in the organization.

Recognition of the different styles of leadership.

31

This involves developing skills and knowledge that will benefit all members of the organization. What is needed— and is often the main problem in policing— is the need for a formal training and periodic and personal assessment of all organizational members

Focus on the individual and the organization.

32

Dispersed Leadership, Leadership in Police Organizations course:

What differentiates this program from others is the need for leadership to be taught at ______. For this program, assessment instruments are used to gauge a person’s strengths and weaknesses. The training course is presented to a cross section of personnel of about ____persons with assessors assigned to ____students.

all phases of a person’s career

24– 28

6

33

Leadership and Giving Helping others is a theme that resounds in a recent work by James Grant, an organizational psychologist at the University of Pennsylvania. Grant ( 2013) points out that as the United States increasingly becomes a service- based economy, those buying and receiving services are concerned about interactions with and trust in the provider. Thus, three business relationship types have developed in many organizations: t____, g____, and m_____.

takers, givers, and matchers.

34

Effective Leadership A recent trend in management seminars has been the paradigm of ________. The most popular and successful of this genre is the Stephen Covey series, ___________, first published in 1989.

“ effective habits” of leaders in business or public service

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Leaders

35

Managing in Chaos:
The following recommendations for addressing disasters of such outrageous proportions are based on our own experiences and from various police and private- sector after- action reviews of September 11:
1. Be ____.
2. C_____.
3. T_____.
4. G_____.
5. M_____.
6. H_____.
7. Be prepared ______.
8. D________.

1. Be calm.
2. Communicate.
3. Take care of your people.
4. Get back to business as soon as possible.
5. Maintain critical communications.
6. Have an incident command plan.
7. Be prepared to retreat.
8. Deal with post-event stress and physical conditions.

36

Digital Nervous System:
The most influential leader in the technological revolution is _________.

Bill Gates, former CEO of Microsoft, the company that developed the Windows software system.

37

In his book Business at the Speed of Thought ( 1999), Gates reviewed the operational and organizational changes taking place through “ digitizing” in operational practices ranging from paper reports to organizational design. He presented a number of business practices that organizational leaders should consider based on the adoption of digital tools. The major points were that p___________ can be eliminated and d________ can assist in the development of intra- organizational communication ( e- mail), v______, I_______, and increased attention to d_____ and a______.

The major points were that paper transactions can be eliminated and digital tools can assist in the development of intra- organizational communication ( e- mail), virtual teams, instant customer service, and increased attention to data collection and analysis.

38

Today the personal computer, cellphone, and Internet define how organizational decisions and interactions with customers are created and executed. Gates viewed this entire enterprise as a “_________” involving rapid activity and responses both within and outside the organization.

digital nervous system

39

The leadership factor for managing the digital enterprise is important to determine how information technology can best be obtained, applied, and managed for organizational processes and relations with customers. The most basic tenet here is that the leadership structure must ______________that is going on and be able to forecast potential applications.

comprehend and understand the technological revolution .

40

Most police departments remain based in the traditional organizational structure and often have limited resources for acquiring information technology. The application of the digital revolution around the United States, and the world for that matter, has created a sense of both reality and irony for many police departments: 1. _____________are increasing, but many smaller police departments still do not have the most basic application of computer technology.

Cyber crime complaints are increasing

41

Most police departments remain based in the traditional organizational structure and often have limited resources for acquiring information technology. The application of the digital revolution around the United States, and the world for that matter, has created a sense of both reality and irony for many police departments: 2. Collaboration is often difficult between intradepartmental units because of ________.

power and turf wars.

42

Most police departments remain based in the traditional organizational structure and often have limited resources for acquiring information technology. The application of the digital revolution around the United States, and the world for that matter, has created a sense of both reality and irony for many police departments: 3. There appears to be increased sharing of information between departments and districts by the development of _______________and crime/ suspect networks.

localized mobile radio district and crime/ suspect networks.

43

Most police departments remain based in the traditional organizational structure and often have limited resources for acquiring information technology. The application of the digital revolution around the United States, and the world for that matter, has created a sense of both reality and irony for many police departments: 4. The ______has become the digital office; the patrol officer can run data checks, match suspect information, complete reports in final form, and process a prisoner.

The patrol car has become the digital office; the patrol officer can run data checks, match suspect information, complete reports in final form, and process a prisoner, all in the front seat of a patrol car.

44

Most police departments remain based in the traditional organizational structure and often have limited resources for acquiring information technology. The application of the digital revolution around the United States, and the world for that matter, has created a sense of both reality and irony for many police departments: 5. Through _____________, police managers are being held accountable for crime trends and service calls in their area.

. Through Compstat and other forms of crime and police- service analysis,

45

Emotional Intelligence: We all are emotional human beings. Psychologist Daniel Goleman points out that leaders need to understand ___________. When leaders make judgments, they need to have categories that will help them analyze their own _______. Leaders also have to know how _______ affect police personnel.

both their own emotions and those of others.

emotional judgments.

emotions affect

46

__________is a concept that continues to be embraced by corporate management today. It is an approach that works with today’s community policing and personnel policies. Goleman recommends organizing groups, negotiating solutions, personal connections, and social analysis.

Emotional intelligence

47

_______includes “ being able to detect and have insight about people’s feeling, motives and concerns” ( Goleman, 1995 : 118).

Social analysis

48

________ are more immediate, intense, and different than conceptual and rational decision making. Successful proactive police management has to anticipate and deal with this aspect of human behavior.

Emotions

49

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories:
S_____
S_____
M____
E______
S______

Self- Awareness
Self- Regulation
Motivation
Empathy
Social Skills

50

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories:

_________: Emotional awareness, accurate self- assessment, self- confidence

Self-Awareness

51

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories:
_______: Self- control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, innovation

Self-Regulation

52

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories: ______: Achievement, commitment, initiative, optimism

Motivation

53

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories:
_______: Understanding others, developing others, service orientation, leveraging diversity, political awareness

Empathy

54

Goleman gave these valuable insights for an emotional competence framework and analytic categories:
________: Influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, change catalyst, building bonds, collaboration and cooperation, team capabilities

Social Skills

55

Emotional Intelligence:
Too many of the “ old guard” of police leaders feel that they are always making rational decisions. They think that public personnel and the public will judge them _______ and _________. This has never been true.

rationally and logically

56

Emotional Intelligence:
All police leaders, from the chief ’s office through supervisory field personnel, must be _______and work in the community. Community leadership, like democracy, is always a ________. Creating a positive community leadership– police team is a ________.

politically aware

political process

political process

57

Total Quality Management Total quality management ( TQM) was a standard agenda item at police management conferences in the early 1990s. .... the tenets of TQM still remain important for customer relations and modern management practices in terms of ________.

product quality

58

The foundations of TQM were written and discussed before and after World War II by ________, who served as the leading organizational consultant during the rebuilding of Japanese industry.

W. Edwards Deming

59

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:

1. A consistency of purpose toward _________.

improvement of product and service

60

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
2. The adoption of the __________ by management, which must begin with corporate leaders

quality philosophy

61

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
3. An emphasis on improving work processes rather than relying on _________.

mass inspections

62

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
4. The awarding of contracts and business on the basis of ________.

quality rather than price tag

63

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
5. Constant improvement in _______.

production and service

64

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
6. Much attention to ______.

training

65

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
7. Uncovering barriers to _______.

workmanship

66

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
8. Driving out _____.

fear, such as the fear of asking questions or expressing ideas

67

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
9. Breaking down _________.

communication barriers between departments.

68

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
10. Eliminating ______________ ( instead, management concentrates on showing people how to do their work more accurately and efficiently)

slogans and targets for zero defects and new levels of productivity

69

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
11. Eliminating work standards that dwell on _______ ( instead, use leadership to look for differences in performance)

numerical quotas

70

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
12. Removing barriers that rob hourly workers of their _________ ( this is often created by communication barriers between management and employees related to job performance or ways to improve services)

pride in workmanship

71

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
13. Instituting a vigorous program of _________ for workers for new or improved skills

education and self- improvement

72

The basic components of TQM are summarized according to the 14- point philosophy presented by Deming....the 14 points are as follows:
14. Having everyone in the organization working toward the objective of ______.

quality

73

It is important to stress that TQM does not mean any change in the _________postulated by Weber. There is still the hierarchy, and management is still in control. ________, with the approval of management, are brought together to define and solve problems related to their sphere of influence, but they may have little impact on overall company strategy.

traditional organizational structure

Quality teams

74

Obviously, this quest for quality must begin _________. Quality controls and innovations are tied to promotions and rewards. For TQM proponents, there must be true commitment and not lip service; otherwise, the program becomes another fad.

at the top and filter down to all layers of the organization

75

As businesses were adopting TQM as a way to improve the quality of their goods and services, a concept called _________ was being developed by certain companies as a way to review how tasks were being performed. The term was coined by MIT professor ________ in 1980 as he observed radical reorganizations undertaken by many major companies.

reengineering


Michael Hammer
(Reengineer with his hammer)

76

In their book Reengineering the Corporation , Hammer and Champy wrote that reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and basic redesign of ________ to achieve dramatic improvement in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.

business processes

77

In comparison to TQM, reengineering involves a ______ of the entire organizational structure, while TQM programs exist within the framework of existing organizational structure.

radical review

78

Companies that have undertaken reengineering are not tied to the idea of _________. The development of informational technology, which resulted in information being shared throughout the organization, contributes to this concept by tearing down distance.

centralized control

79

In most cases, reengineering means that the company will produce more with _______ and _______, which indeed results in reduced organizational structures.

fewer departments and levels of control

80

Reengineering as a concept provides a method to review the organizational structure in order to improve police services. ____________used reengineering to reorganize the NYPD . The hierarchy was flattened. Police focus groups created a better information flow. Decision- making authority was brought down to the precinct commander’s level. Precinct commanders were rewarded and punished based on the reduction of crime in their precincts. Crime- mapping techniques were made available to all levels of the police bureaucracy.

Commissioner William Bratton

81

Reengineering, which led to the _______approach to management, has been continued. The most important lesson learned is that the reduction of crime depends on good ________ throughout the police department, but especially to __________.

Compstat

information flow

middle management


82

Katz’s Three Skills Approach: Robert Katz attempts to answer the question, “ What observable skills does an effective administrator demonstrate?” He states, It is assumed here that an administrator is one who ( a) directs the activities of other persons and ( b) undertakes the responsibility for achieving certain objectives through these efforts. Within this definition, successful administration appears to rest on three basic skills, which we will call _____, ______, and _____.

technical, human, and conceptual.

83

According to Katz, ________“ involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline.” This is the skill most easily trained for. It is more operational than managerial.

technical skill

84

More complex is ______ , which Katz describes as “ the executive’s ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads.” _______ means that the police executive is sensitive to other people’s feelings and is aware of his or her own feelings.

human skill
Human skill

85

This human relations skill involves ( 1) tolerance of ______ and ( 2) _______.

ambiguity

empathy

86

Katz’s approach to conceptual skill is in terms of an o_______ and i________ function.

organizing and integrating function, “ coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective”

87

Katz’s approach to conceptual skill is in terms of an organizing and integrating function, “ coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective” ( 1975 : 27). This is not meant to be simply an intellectual process, as Katz considers such skills to include “ an ability to _________.”

translate knowledge into action

88

Police managers with _________ are able to see their relationship to the rest of the organization of the department and understand how their orders and policy will affect the various structural relationships within the department.

conceptual skills

89

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Maslow attempted to understand _______. If police managers understand this, they should be able to __________ and understand their own needs and satisfactions so that they can become more effective.

what motivates human beings

motivate their personnel

90

According to Maslow, first there is the basic need to 1.________. Next is the need to have good 2.______. The third need is that of 3.________in terms of one’s work and place in the organization. Many police administrators call this need a need to be respected by one’s fellow officers and superiors. Fourth, there is a need to feel that one has 4._____________. Finally, there is the ultimate need that some people will never have satisfied, what Maslow calls the need for 5.__________.

1. feel secure and to have one’s physical needs taken care of

2. social relations

3. feeling worthwhile

4. enough authority where one’s opinions are listened to and that the individual is actually participating in making policy in the organization

5. self- actualization or self- fulfillment

91

To obtain a full range of answers concerning the police executive’s feelings about his or her position in terms of fulfilling his or her needs, three rating questions are recommended: ( 1) How much of the characteristic was connected with ________ ( 2) How much of the characteristic do you think _______ ( 3) How important is this _________ to you?

( 1) How much of the characteristic was connected with your police management position? ( 2) How much of the characteristic do you think should be connected with your police management position? ( 3) How important is this characteristic to you?

92

Herzberg’s Hygiene/ Motivators Approach to Job Satisfaction Frederick Herzberg feels that the externally generated, traditional ________, which he calls KITA , has not worked.

kick- in- the- pants approach

93

Herzberg looked at what he called _________ contributing to job dissatisfaction and found in a sample of 1,685 employees that these factors contributed 69 percent to job dissatisfaction and only 19 percent to job satisfaction, whereas what he calls ________ contributed 81 percent to job satisfaction and 31 percent to job dissatisfaction.

hygiene factors ( pay, fringe benefits, labor relations)


motivators

94

Police managers who wish to be effective in motivating their employees and even themselves need to be aware of these dimensions of job satisfaction. Herzberg found that the following “ events” reported by employees led to extreme satisfaction on the job and a willingness to increase performance:
• Being able to attain _______
• ___________ for doing a job well
• Having a great desire to perform _______
• Having _________ for getting tasks completed
• Being able to _________in the organization
• Having a sense of _________related to the job.

• Being able to attain work related goals
• Recognition by the organization for doing a job well
• Having a great desire to perform work related duties
• Having responsibility for getting tasks completed
• Being able to advance to higher levels in the organization
• Having a sense of professional growth related to the job.

95

Herzberg’s approach is to apply what he calls motivators to __________. He does this by ______ to the motivators involved. (for example) By removing a certain number of controls but still keeping the principle of accountability, he feels that personnel will retain a sense of responsibility and personal achievement.

management personnel

relating certain principles

96

___________ and thus allowing more job freedom should also bring about an increase in these three areas.
(achievement, responsibility, and recognition)

Decentralizing authority

97

Along this same line, he recommends giving personnel an ________________, which will result in a sense of achievement, responsibility, and recognition.

area of work for which they are responsible

98

The whole idea of motivating employees is an important concept begun by Herzberg that continues today through the concept of _______. __________ is defined as allowing employees to actively participate in setting and achieving department or unit objectives.

empowerment

Empowerment

99

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:
Douglas Murray McGregor’s approach to management is similar to Herzberg’s insofar as McGregor’s advocates an _________that would provide a check against the autocracy created by stifling hierarchical disciplin.

industrial humanism

100

MacGregor was one of the leading theorists of what became known as the __________in the early 1960s. His view of management and its relationship with workers was presented in the often cited concepts of ________.

Human Relations School

Theory X and Y

101

For _______, workers are viewed as needing strong leadership in motivating and controlling their actions, and modifying behavior through punishment and rewards. From a _______ perspective, they are viewed as “ lazy and passive” and not willing to accept responsibility.

Theory X

Theory X

102

_______ speaks to the need for management to provide the means for people to achieve both personal goals, which in turn, would lead to the attainment of organizational goals. ________ posits that employees will, in fact, accept responsibility and often present creativity in addressing organizational issues. Most theorists and observers of organizational behavior agree that very few organizations are solely Theory X or Theory Y.

Theory Y

Theory Y

103

Most theorists and observers of organizational behavior agree that very few organizations are solely Theory X or Theory Y. However, from a leadership perspective, American police management and organizations tend to be labeled as _______ based on the tradition of “ top down” decision making, and the heavy reliance on rules and procedures.

Theory X

104

______ and related theories related to employee motivation and satisfaction provide the theoretical background for a number of recent innovations such as team policing, employee/ employer problem solving teams, and individual initiative in addressing community crime problems.

Theory Y

105

Theory Z:

McGregor’s management approach talked about a humanistic approach to management. However, we have a corporate culture that involves both _____, that is, the humanistic approach for terms of personnel management skills, and the use of ______ for day- to- day business.

high touch

high technology

106

One approach to the use of both high touch and high technology is _______.

Theory Z

107

Theory Z , as characterized by the following:
1. There is a guarantee of ________ in the agency.

lifetime career and employment

108

Theory Z , as characterized by the following:
2. One’s career develops with __________.

different jobs throughout the agency rather than being limited to one specialization.

109

Theory Z , as characterized by the following:
3. Decisions are developed relying on a ________.

high- technology total information system.

110

Theory Z , as characterized by the following:

4. Management is characterized by the use of modern i_____ and a________, f_______, m________, and f___________of the system by management.

Management is characterized by the use of modern information and accounting systems, formal planning, management by objectives, and formal means of control of the system by management.

111

Theory Z , as characterized by the following:
5. Decision making is initially __________. When a decision is made by top management, everyone is expected to go along with it and carry out the new decision.

consensual and democratic, where employees take a great deal of time agreeing to changes and talking about it

112

The greatest dilemma facing police managers once they have achieved higher ranking positions is in the area of ____________.

continuing training and education

113

The focus of police training courses today remains directed to line and supervisory personnel on operational skills and not to ___________.

executive development