Chp11-muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp11-muscular System Deck (190):
1

What does the muscular system consist of??

• skeletal muscles only

2

How many muscles is there in the body??

• about 650

3

What does muscle organization affect?

• power
• range
• speed
• movement

4

What are fascicles?

• muscle cells organized in bundles

5

How can skeletal muscles be classified?

• by fascicles organization

6

What are the 4 patterns of fascicles organization?

1. Parallel
2. Convergent
3. Pennate
4. Circular

7

What are parallel muscles?

• fibers that are all parallel to the long axis

8

What are some examples of parallel muscles?

• biceps
• brachii

9

How does tension depend on parallel muscles??

• on total number of myofibrils

10

What does this tension directly relate to in parallel muscles?

• to cross section muscles

11

How much tension is developed per 1 inch^2 of cross section??

• 50 lbs
• 23 kg

12

What are convergent muscles?

• broad area that converges on attachment site

13

How do muscle fibers work in convergent muscles?

• pull in different directions, depending on stimulation

14

What are some examples of convergent muscles?

• pectoralis muscles

15

What are pennate muscles?

• muscles that form an angle with the tendon

16

How are pennate muscles different than parallel muscles?

Pennate muscles:
1. Do not move as far
2. Contain mor myofibrils
3. Develop more tension

17

What are the 3 types of pennate muscles?

1. Unipennate
2. Bipennate
3. Multipennate

18

What are unioennate muscles?

• fibers are only in ONE side of tendon

19

What is an example of unipennate?

• extensor digitorum

20

What are bipennate muscles?

• fibers are on BOTH sides of tendon

21

What is an example of bipennate muscles??

• recurs femoris

22

How is a multipennate muscles?

• tendon branches WITHIN muscle

23

What is an example of multipennate muscle??

• deltoid

24

What is another name for circular muscles??

• sphincters

25

What are circular muscles for?

• guard entrances by opening and closing

26

What are some examples or circular muscles??

• obscularis Oris
• muscle of the mouth

27

What do skeletal muscles attach to?

• skeleton to produce motion

28

What does the type of attachment affect?

• power
• range
• speed
• movement

29

What are levers??

• a rigid moving structure

30

What are considered levers in the human body??

• each bone

31

What is each joint considered?

• a fulcrum

32

What is a fulcrum?

• a fixed point

33

What do muscles provide to the levers?

• applied force required to overcome the load

34

What are the 3 changes levers make?

1. Direction on AF
2. Distance and speed of movement produced by AF
2. Effective strength of an AF

35

What are the 3 classes of of levers?

1. First class lever
2. Second class levers
3. Third class lever

36

What does the classes of levers depend on?

• relationship between applied force, fulcrum and resistance

37

How are first-class levers??

• seesaw/teeter-toter motion

38

Where is the fulcrum located on respects of load and force on first-class lever?

• center
• between AF and load

39

What is a movement of 1st class lever?

• head down up motion

40

What does 2nd class lever do?

• moves large weight wit small force

41

Where is the fulcrum to respects of AF and load in 2nd class lever??

• F-> L -> AF

42

What is a body movement of 2rd class lever??

• raising up to your top toes

43

How is a second lever class?

• wheel barrel example

44

How is 3rd class levers?

• catapult example

45

What is the most common type of lever in the body??

• third-class lever

46

What does 3rd class lever do??

• moves smaller load with greater AF
• minimizes speed and distance traveled

47

Where is the fulcrum with respect to load and applied for CR in 3rd class lever??

• F -> AF -> L

48

What is the fixed point of attachment in a muscle called?

• Origin

49

What is the moving point of attachment in a muscle called?

• insertion

50

Where do most muscles originate or insert at?

• the Skeleton

51

Where is the origin usually?

• proximal to insertion

52

What are actions?

• movement produced by muscle contraction

53

How are body movement described??

• in terms of bone, joint or region

54

Why do muscles work on groups?

• to maximize efficiency

55

What size muscles maximize their potential first?

• smaller muscles

56

What are the 3 muscle terminology based on function?

1. Agonist (prime mover)
2. Antagonist
3. Synergist

57

What for an agonist produce?

• particular movement

58

What does antagonist do?

• opposes movement of a particular agonist

59

What is a synergist??

• smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist

60

What does synergist do?

• helps start motion
• stabilizing origin

61

What is another name for synergist??

• fixator

62

What happens to the Agonist when the antagonist contracts?

• as one contracts, the other stretches

63

What are some examples of agonist-antagonist work?

• flexor-extensor
•abductor-adductor

64

At joints that permit flexion and extension, muscles while line of action cross the ANTERIOR side are?

• flexors

65

At joints that permit flexion and extension, muscles while line of action cross the POSTERIOR side are?

• extensors

66

At joints that permit abductions and addictions, muscles whose line of action cross the MEDIAL side of the joint are?

• adductor

67

At joints that permit abductions and addictions, muscles whose line of action cross the LATERAL side of the joint are?

• abductors

68

The teres minor crosses the posterior side of the shoulder joint to produce?

• lateral rotation

69

The subcapularis crosses the anterior side of the shoulder joint to produce?

• medial rotation

70

What are the 6 descriptive terms used to name muscles?

1. Location in body
2. Origin and insertion
3. Fascicles organization
4. Relative position
5. Structural characteristic
6. Action

71

What are the 2 divisions of the muscular system?

1. Axial muscles
2. Appendicular muscles

72

What do axial muscles do?

• position head and spinal column
• move rib cage

73

How much of the body is axial muscles?

• 60%

74

What do appendicular muscles do?

• support pectoral and pelvic girdles
• support limbs

75

How much of the body forms appendicular muscles?

• 40%

76

How are axial muscles divided?

• by location and function

77

What are the 4 divisions of axial muscles??

1. Head and neck
2. Vertebral column
3. Oblique and rectus
4. Pelvic floor

78

What do the muscles of the head control?

• facial expression
• position of eye
• mastication (move mandible)
• tongue
• pharynx (swallowing)
• anterior muscles of neck

79

What do the anterior muscles of the neck do?

• control position of larynx
• depress mandible
• support tongue and pharynx

80

WhT are the 8 muscles of facial expression?

1. Buccinator
2. Mentalis
3. Orbicularis oris
4. Zygomaticus major
5. Zygomaticus minor
6. Orbicularis oculi
7. Occipitorontalis frontal belly
8. Occipital belly

81

WhT is the action of the buccinator? ID

• compress cheeks

82

What is the action of the mentalis? ID

• elevates and protrudes lower lip

83

What is the origin of the orbicularis oris?

• maxillae and mandible

84

What is the insertion of the orbicularis??

• lips

85

What is the action of the orbicularis oris?

• purses lips

86

What is the action of the zygomaticus major? ID

• retracts and elevates corner of mouth

87

What is the action of the zygomaticus minor? ID

• retracts and elevates upper lip

88

What is the origin of orbicularis oculi?

• medial margin of orbit

89

What is the insertion of or orbicularis oculi?

• skin around eye lids

90

WhT is the action of orbicularis oculi?

• closes eye

91

What is the action of occipitofrontalis frontal belly?

• raises eyebrows
• wrinkles forehead
• tenses and retracts scalp

92

What is the action of Occipital belly?

• tenses and retracts scalp

93

What are the muscles of mastication?

1. Masseter
2. Temporalis

94

What is the origin of masseter?

• zygomatic arch

95

What is the insertion of masseter?

• lateral surface of mandibular ramus

96

What is the action of masseter?

• elevates mandible and closes jaw

97

What is the action of temporalis? ID

• elevates mandible

98

What are the anterior muscles of the neck??

• sternocleidomastoid

99

What is the origin of sternocleidomastoid??

• two bellies
1. Clavicular head
2. Eternal head

100

Where does the clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid attaches?

• eternal end of clavicle

101

Where does the eternal head of sternocleidomastoid attaches?

• manubrium

102

What is the insertion of sternocleidomastoid?

• mastoid region of skull
• lateral portion of superior muchal line

103

What are muscles of the vertebral column?

• axial muscles
• spinal extensor
• spinal flecked

104

What is another name for spinal extensors?

• erector spinae

105

What are the 2 types of erector spinae?

• superficial
• deep

106

What ar spinal flexors?

• transversospinalis

107

What are the muscles of the vertebral column?

1. Erector spinae
2. Splindis group
3. Longissimus group
4. Illiocostalis group

108

What forms the spinalis group?

1. Spinalis cervicis
2. Spinalis thoracis

109

What forms the longissimus group?

1. Longissimus cervicis
2. Longissimus thoracis

110

What forms the illiocostalis group?

1. illiocostalis cervicis
2 illiocostalis thoracis
3. illiocostalis lumborum

111

Where do oblique and rectus muscles lie?

• within the body walls

112

What does oblique muscles do?

• compresses underlying structures

113

What does oblique muscles rotate?

• vertebral column

114

What do rectus muscles do??

• oppose erector spinae

115

What does rectus muscles flex??

• vertebral column

116

What are the 7 required muscles of the oblique and rectus?

1. External intercostals
2. Internal intercostals
3. External oblique
4. Internal oblique
5. Transversus abdominis
6. Diaphragm
7. Rectus abdominis

117

What is the origin of internal intercostals?

• superior border of each rib

118

Where does internal intercostals insert?

Inferior border of the preceding rib

119

What is the action of internal intercostals?

• depresses ribs

120

What is the origin of external intercostals?

• inferior border of each rib

121

What is the insertion of external intercostals?

• superior border of more inferior rib

122

What is the action of external intercostals?

• elevates rib

123

What is the origin or external obliques

• external and inferior borders of ribs 5-12

124

What is the insertion of external oblique?

• Linea alba of iliac crest

125

What is the action of external obliques

• compresses abdomen
• depressed ribs
• bends spine

126

What is the origin of internal obliques?

• thoracolumnar fascia and iliac crest

127

What is the insertion of internal obliques??

• inferior ribs
• xiphoid process
• linea alba

128

What is the action of internal obliques?

• compresses abdomen
• depressed ribs
• bends spine

129

What is the origin of transversus abdominis?

• cartilages of ribs 6-12
• iliac crest
• thoracolumnar fascia

130

What is the insertion of transversus abdominis?

• linea alba and pubis

131

What is the action of transversus abdominis?

• compresses abdomen

132

What is the origin of the diaphragm??

• xiphoid process
• cartilages of ribs 4-10
• anterior surfaces of lumbar vertebrae

133

What is the insertion of the diaphragm??

• central tendinious sheet

134

What is the action of the diaphragm?

• contraction expands thoracic cavity
• compresses abdominopelvic cavity

135

What is the origin of rectus abdominis?

• superior surface of pubis around symphysis

136

What is the insertion of the diaphragm??

• inferior surfaces if costal cartilage 5-7
• xeohoid process

137

What is the action of the rectus abdominis?

• depresses ribs
• flexes vertebral column
• compresses abdomen

138

What are the fictions of the muscles of the pelvic flor?

1. Support organs of pelvic cavity
2. Flex sacrum and coccyx
3. Control movement of materials through urethra and anus

139

What do appendicular muscles do?

1. Position and stabilize pectoral and pelvic girdle
2. Move upper and lower limb

140

What are the 2 divisions of the appendicular muscles?

1. Shoulders and upper limbs
2. Pelvis and lower limbs

141

What are the 4 groups of the shoulder and upper limbs in appendicular muscles?

Muscles that:
1. Position pectoral girdle
2. Move arm
3. Move forearm and hand
4. Move hand and fingers

142

What are the 6 muscles that position the pectoral girdle?

1. Levator scapulae
2. Pectoralis minir
3. Rhomboid major
4. Rhomboid minor
5. Serratus anterior
6. Trapezius

143

What is the origin of the levator scapulae?

• transverse process of the 1st 4 cervical

144

What is the insertion of levator scapulae?

• vertebral border of scapula near superior angle

145

What is the action of levator scapulae?

• elevates scapula

146

What is the action of pectoralis minor?

• depresses and protracts shoulders
• rotates scapula (downward rotation)
• Elevates ribs if scapula is stationary

147

What is the action of rhomboid major?

• adducts scapula
• performs downward motion

148

What is the action of rhomboid minor?

• adducts scapula
• performs downward motion

149

What is the action of serratus anterior? The

• protracted shoulder
• rotates scapula (upward rotation)

150

What is the insertion of trapezius?

• clavicle and scapula

151

What is the action of the trapezius?

• elevate, retract, depress, rotate scapula
• elevate clavicle
• extend neck

152

What are the 8 muscles that move the arm?

1. Deltoid
2. Supraspinatus
3. Subscapularis
4. Teres major
5. Infraspinatus
6. Teres minor
7. Pectoralis major
8. Pectoralis minor

153

What is the origin of the deltoid?

• clavicle and scapula is

154

What is the insertion of the deltoid?

• deltoid tuberosity of humerus

155

What is the action of the deltoid?

• addiction at shoulder
• flexion and medial rotation
• extension and lateral rotation

156

What is the action of the suprasoinatus?

• abduction at the shoulder

157

What is the action of subscapularis?

• medial rotation at shoulder

158

What is the action of teres minor?

• extension, addiction and medial rotation

159

What is the action of pectoralis major?

• flexion addiction and
Exist rotation at shoulder

160

What is the action of Latisssimus dorsi?

• extension, addictionand medial rotation at shoulder

161

Where do the muscles that move the forearm and hand originate and insert?

• originate in humerus
• insert on forearm

162

What are the exceptions of the origin and insertion of muscles that move forearm and hand?

• major flexor- biceps brachii
• major extensor- triceps brachii

163

Where are the extensor mainly in muscles that move the forearm and hand?

• posterior and lateral surfaces of arm

164

Where are the flexors mainly in muscles that move the forearm and hand?

• anterior and medial surfaces

165

What are the 5 muscles that move forearm and hand?

• biceps brachii
• brachialis
• brachioradialis
• anconeus
• trioceps brachii

166

What is the action of biceps brachii?

• flexion at elbow and shoulder supination

167

What is the action of brachialis?

• flexion at elbow

168

What is the action of brachioradialis

• flexion at elbow

169

What is the action of anconeus?

• extension at elbow

170

What is the action of triceps brachii

• extension at elbow

171

Sam hat is the origin of the triceps brachii?

• superior lateral margin of humerus

172

What is the insertion of triceps brachii?

• olecranon ulna

173

What are the muscle that move the hand fingers also called?

• extrinsic muscles

174

Where do the muscles that flex the hand and fingers lie?

• entirely within forearm

175

What happens with tendons with muscles that move and and fingers?

• the only that cross wrist
• synovial tendon sheets

176

What are the 5 muscles that move the hand and fingers?

1. Abductor pollicis longus
2. Extensor digitorun
3. Flexor digitorum profundus
4. Flexor digitorum superficialis
5. Flexor policies longus

177

Where do most muscles that move the lower limb attach?

• pelvic girdle

178

What are the 3 groups of muscles that position the lower limb?

Muscles that move:
1. The thigh
2. The leg
3. Foot and toes

179

What are the 3 gluteal muscles that move the thigh

1. Gluteus Maximus
2. Gluteus minimus
3. Tensor fascia latae

180

What are the 3 adductor muscles that move the thigh?

1. Adductor longus
2. Adductor Magnus
3. Gracilis
4. Iliopsoas group has

181

What is the iliopsoas muscle that move the thigh.

• iliacus
• psoas major

182

Where to flexors that move the leg originate?

• pelvic girdle

183

Where do extensors that move the leg originate and insert??

• femoral surface
• insert in patella

184

What are the flexors of the knee at the hamstrings?

• biceps femoris
• semimebraneous
• Semitendinous

185

What are the flexors at the knee in sartorius?

• originates superior to acetabulum

186

What is shared by the gastrocnemius and the soleus?

• calcaneal tendon
(Achilles)

187

What does the cardiovascular system do?

• removes carbon dioxide and waste
• delivers oxygen and fuel

188

What does the respiratory system do?

• responds to extend demand of muscles

189

WhT does the integumentary system do?

• disperses heat from muscle activity

190

What does nervous and endocrine system do?

• direct responses of all system