Chpt 10/11 (11) - Reproductive Systems Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpt 10/11 (11) - Reproductive Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 10/11 (11) - Reproductive Systems Deck (163):
1

Uterus

Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium

2

Fallopian Tubes

1 (of 2) tubes that lead from Ovaries to Uterus

- Fimbriae - End of fallopian tube, fingerlike structure

- Ampula - Longer portion of tube, most burdened with disease

- Ismic - As fallopian tube enters uterus

- Cornua - Part of tube in uterus

3

Gonads (Ovaries)

1 (of 2) glands that produce ova (egg)

4

Cervix

Mouth (opening) of uterus from the vagina

5

Vagina

Genital canal leading from uterus to vulva

6

Broad function of Female Reproduction

- Produce an ovum (egg)
- Move to fertilization site
- Nurture conception to Birth
- Delivery of Baby

7

Ovary

Produce ovum (egg)

8

Mature Follicle

(Graafian Follicle)
What is left behind after egg extruded

- Released monthly

9

Ovulation

Ovum released, day 14 of cycle
**Ovulation caused by LH Surge**

- Fertilization in fallopian tube
- Implants into endometrium of uterus (zygote)
- Day 5-7 of ovulation
- If no fertilization then a drop in estrogen and progesterone
- Menses = bleeding

10

Menarch

1st ovulation, about 13yrs old

11

Menopause

End of ovulation, about 51yrs average

12

Ovulation Period

- At birth, female has about 200,000 eggs

- 30-40yrs of ovulation (monthly)

13

Cervix

Opening into uterus

- External Os - Vagina to Cervix opening
- Internal Os - Cervix to Uterus opening
- Cervical Canal - B/w External & Internal Os

14

Vagina

Rugae transverse folds within Mucosa

15

Uterus

3 Layers (Endometrium, Myometrium, Serosa)

- Cervix is opening into Uterus
- Fallopian Tubes enter at the Cornum
- Broad Ligament - Houses Uteren Vessels
- Ovarian Ligament - Attaches ovary to uterus

16

Hymen

Fold of mucus membrane which partially covers vaginal opening

17

Breast Anatomy

Muscle - alongside chest cavity
Adipose - Majority of breast
Mammary Glands - Lobules
Mammary Ducts -
Lactiferous Ducts -
Nipple - Areola

18

Mons Pubis

Mound of soft tissue covered by pubic hair after puberty

19

Prepuce

Covering over clitoris

20

Urethral Meatus

Opening of urethra to excrete urine

21

Skene's Duct

Excrete fluid into vagina

22

Bartholin's Gland

1/2 glands on either side of vagina that secrete fluid

23

Labia (Minora / Majora)

(-) 2 folds of skin between labia majora

(+) 2 folds of skin that form boarders of vulva

24

Female Hormone Cycle

(Estrogen dominant from days 1-14)
Days 1-5 - Menstrual bleeding (lining of uterus)
Days 6-12 - FSH from anterior pituitary
- Follicle matures
- Estradiol matures
Days 13-14 - LH peaks; ovulation occurs

Days 15 - 28 - Progesterone peaks; Uterine lining prepares for implantation

25

Female Hormone Cycle by Phase

1st Phase: Fellicular Phase

2nd Phase: Ovulation Phase

3rd Phase: Ludial Phase

26

Corpus Luteum

Secreting structure formed from graafian follicle (mature follicle) which fills with yellow substance and secretes progesterone and estrogen after releasing ovum (egg)

27

Hormones Need To Know:
- GnRH
- FSH
- LH
- Estrogen
- Progesterone

Source: Action

- Hypothalamus: Stimulates FSH and LH

- Pituitary: Stimulates ovaries to produce mature follicles; Follicles produce increased levels of estrogen

- Pituitary: Surge of LH stimulates follicle to break open and discharge ovum and follicular fluid (contains estrogen)

- Ovary (developing follicle): Causes rapid growth of endometrium of uterus

- Ovary (corpus luteum): Causes endometrium to become thick, spongy, glandular and receptive to fertilized ovum (zygote)

28

Fertilization

May occur as a result of coitus (intercourse)

Zygote; Embryo; Fetus

29

Gravida

Woman who is pregnant

1st pregnancy "Gravidal"

30

Para

After delivery (# of deliveries: Para 1 = after 1 delivery)

31

Placenta

Afterbirth; made up of Amnion and Chorion membrane

32

Postpartum

Time after the birth; up to 6 weeks after delivery

33

Menopause

51yrs average age
- Estrogen decline
- Cessation of menstruation

34

Climacteric

Period of time leading up to menopause

- Characterized by symptoms; Hot Flashes, Night Sweats, due to decreasing estrogen levels

35

Perimenopause

3-5 yrs of decreasing and fluctuating estrogen; prior to menopause

36

Post Menopause

Osteopenia - deficiency in bone
Osteoporosis - decreased density of bone

Decreased estrogen levels:
- Decreased ability to put calcium into bone
- Increased vertebral compression fractures
- Increased risk for hip fracture

37

Amnio

Amnion

38

Cervico

Cervix

39

Colpo

Vagina

40

Episi (o)

Vulva

41

Galact (o)

Milk

42

Gynec (o)

Female

43

Oo

Egg

44

Oophor (o)

Ovary

45

Ov (i) / Ov (o)

Egg

46

Perine (o)

Perineum

47

Salping (o)

Fallopian Tube

48

Uter (o)

Uterus

49

Vagin (o)

Vagina

50

Ovari (o)

Ovary

51

Hyster (o)

Uterus

52

Lact (o)

Milk

53

Mamm (o)

Breast

54

Mast (o)

Breast

55

Men (o)

Menstration

56

Metr (o)

Uterus

57

Vulv (o)

Vulva

58

AB

Abortion

59

AFB

Alpha Fetoprotein

60

CIS

Carcinoma in situ

61

Cx

Cervix

62

D&C

Dilation and Curettage

63

DUB

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

64

EDC

Estimated Date of Confinement (Birth)

65

ERT

Estrogen Replacement Therapy

66

FHT

Fetal Heart Tones

67

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

68

G1P1

Gravid 1, Para 1

69

HCG

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

70

IUD

Intra Uterine Device

71

LMP

Last Menstral Period

72

OCP

Oral Contraceptive

73

PID

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

74

PMS

PreMenstral Symptoms

75

TAH - BSO

Total Hysterectomy w/ Removal of Both Ovaries

76

PAP Smear

Sampling of cervix cells for purpose of detecting cancer or pre-cancer changes

77

Colposcope

Lighted microscope instrument for evaluating cervix/vagina

- Colposcopy - procedure for evaluating cervix/vagina

78

Hysteroscopy

Procedure for viewing inside of uterus

79

Mammogram

X-Ray of breast

80

Ectopic Pregnancy

Pregnancy implanted outside of uterus

81

Tubal Pregnancy

Ectopic, implanted in fallopian tube

- Demands surgical excision; risk of rupture

82

Spontaneous Abortion

Miscarriage

83

Placenta Abruption

Tearing of placenta away from uterine wall and blood accumulates behind placenta

84

PreEclampsia (Toxemia of Pregnancy)

Pregnancy with Hypertension, Proteinuria, Edema

Eclampsia - Seizures in pregnancy

85

Placenta Previa

Placenta covers cervix

- Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy

- Requires C-section

86

Gestational Diabetes

High blood sugar (diabetes) in pregnancy

87

Rh Isoimmunization

- Mother is Rh- blood type
- Fetus is Rh+ blood type from father
- Then mother can be sensitized (make antibodies against) baby's blood type. Next pregnancy w/ Rh- baby means mother immunity can attack baby
- Erythroblastosis Fetalis

88

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstruation

89

Dysmenorrhea

Painful cramping with menses

90

Menorrhagia

Excessive menstrual bleeding

91

Oligomenorrhea

Scant menstrual bleeding

92

Metrorrhagia

Bleeding in-between cycle

93

Menometrorrhagia

Excessive and irregular menstrual bleeding

94

Dyspareunia

Painful sexual intercourse

95

Cervicitus

Inflammation of the cervix

96

Mastitis

Inflammation of breast

97

Salpingitis

Inflammation of fallopian tube

98

Vaginitis

Inflammation of vagina

99

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Inflammatory disease of a cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes

100

Ovarian Cyst

Cystic mass of ovaries, still functional

- Cystadenoma; Dermoid (teratoma)

101

Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

Multiple cysts in both ovaries

102

Uterine Fibroids

Benign uterine muscle tumors

Cause: Pelvic Pain, Menorrhagia, Dysfunctional bleeding patterns

Treatment: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Endometrial Ablation,, D&C (scraping of lining)

103

Endometriosis

Abnormal growth of uterine lining (endometrium)

Growth - outside of uterus cavity, on ovaries, fallopian tubes, and pelvis

Causes: Dysmenorrhea, Pelvic Pain, Dyspareunia
Treatment: Surgery

104

Gonorrhea

Bacteria infects cervix

105

Chlamydia

Bacteria infects cervix

106

Syphilis

STD causes open sore (chancre) on labia and rash

107

HPV

Virus STD; Condyloma (warts), cervical cancer

108

Myomectomy

Surgical removal (excision) of fibroid tumors

109

Oophorectomy

Removal of an ovary

110

Salpingectomy

Removal of Fallopian Tube

111

Lumpectomy

Removal of breast mass and some surrounding breast tissue

112

Mastectomy

Breast is removed

113

Mastopexy

Breast "raising" surgery

114

Abortifacient

Drug that prevents implantation of zygote; mifepristone

115

HRT

Hormone Replacement Therapy; Estrogen/Progesterone

116

Oxytocin

Labor Inducing drug

117

Tocolytic

Drug that stops labor

118

Spermatozoa

Male Gamete or sex cell

Spermatozoon (pl.)

119

Testes

Male Gonads; Produce sperm in the seminiferous tubules, aka testicles, located in scrotum

120

Spermatogenesis

Process of producing sperm

121

Testosterone

Male hormone produced in leydig cells between seminiferous tubules

122

Epididymis

Superios aspect of testis, where sperm is stored (ducts)

123

Vas Deferens

Duct from Epididymis to ejaculatory duct at seminal vesicle

124

Seminal Vesicle

Secrete alkaline material to nourish sperm and help motility

125

Prostate Gland

Secretes milky fluid as part of semen

126

Semen

Sperm and secretions from prostate, seminal vesicle and cowper's

127

Cowper's

Gland which secrete alkaline fluid into semen

128

Perineum

Space between scrotum and anus

129

Ejaculation

Process of releasing semen which has several 100 million sperm in 2-5cc of semen

130

Andr (o)

Men

131

Balan (o)

Glans penis

132

Epididym (o)

Epididymis

133

Orch (o)

Testes

134

Prostat (o)

Prostate gland

135

Sperm (o) / Spermat (o)

Sperm

136

AIH

Artificial Insemination Homologous

137

BPH

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

138

PSA

Prostate Specific Antigen

139

TURP

Reduction of Prostate

140

Cryptorchism

Undescended Testicle

141

Anorchia

Lack of testicle

142

Hypospadias

Abnormal urethral meatus on underneath of penis

143

Epispadias

Meatus on top side

144

Phimosis

Narrowing of foreskin

145

Hydrocele

Fluid containing hernia of testis

146

Varicocele

Herniated veins near testis

147

Balanitis

Inflammation of penis

148

Azoospermia

Semen without living sperm

149

Aspermia

Inability to produce sperm

150

Hernia

Protrusion of tissue out of its normal anatomical locations through weekend area of fascia

151

Prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate

152

Epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis

153

Peyronie's Disease

Disorder; marked by curvature of penis from internal structural damage

154

Seminoma

Tumor of testicle (malignant)

155

Chancre Sore

STD, primary syphillis

Treated with penicillin

156

Circumcision

Removal of foreskin; most common male surgery

157

Orchiectomy

Removal of testis

158

Prostatectomy

Removal of prostate gland

159

Vasovasotomy

Reversal of a vasectomy

160

Castration

Removal of both testicles

161

Anabolic Steroids

Androgens (testosterone) used to increase muscle, libido or stamina. Abused by athletes

162

BPH Treatments

Diminish size of prostate, allow urination

163

Erectile Dysfunction

Sildenatil (viagra); tadalafil (cialis)