Flashcards in Chpt 11 - Common Protozoans That Infect Domestic Animals Deck (83):
Protozoans that possess cilia
Nonmotile, resistant stage of a protozoan parasite
A tiny pinpoint center within the nucleus of the amoebas
A protozoan found circulating in the peripheral blood
Phlebotomine sand flies
Minute parasite of RBCs of dogs transmitted by a tick
Piroplasm in the shape of a ring inside RBCs
Blood forms of intracellular, malaria-like parasites (found in leukocytes)
Commensals or commensalism
Type of symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont benefits while other neither benefits nor is harmed
Equine protozoan myeloencephalitis (EPM)
Infectious enterohepatitis or blackhead
Skin disease of freshwater and ornamental fish
When do you typically see the trophozoites of Giardia species?
In animals with diarrhea rather than formed stool
What is the best diagnostic protocol for diagnosing Giardia infection?
As cysts are hard to find in diarrheic samples, it is best to use immunodiagnostic tests in conjunction with fecal flotation tests.
What parasite causes amebic dysentery in humans?
Entamoeba histolytica (primarily a human parasite)
What are some of the most commonly diagnosed parasites in puppies and kittens?
Cystoisospora spp. (Coccidia)
For how long do felines (only) shed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts?
For up to 2 weeks of its life
Felines are the definitive host, but humans and other warmblooded vertebrates can serve as intermediate host.
It can be a significant pathogenin pregnant women and their developing fetus.
Why should feces suspected of containing Cryptosporidium oocysts be handled with great care?
Because humans may become infected.
Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common zoonotic species.
It is transferred from host to host by ingestion of oocysts.
How many species of Sarcocystis are there?
There are seven species infecting dogs and five species infecting cats.
Each of the species has a different intermediate host.
Where can the trypomastigote stage of Trypanosoma cruzi be found?
In a peripheral blood smear.
What species is rarely seen in dogs in North America?
Name the three subspecies of Babesia canis and in which country it can be found.
1.) B. canis canis = Europe
2.) B. canis vogeli = Northern Africa & North America
3.) B. canis rossi = Southern Africa
How is Cytauxzoon felis diagnosed?
By finding the bejeweled ring form in the RBCs in stained blood smears.
How are most intracellular malaria-like parasites transmitted?
By the bite of an arthropod (a mosquito or a mite)
How is Hepatozoon species spread?
By the ingestion of an arthropod
How can individual species of Eimeria partially differentiated?
By oocyst size and appearance
Which parasites are very common in ruminants?
They are not pathogenic and are very common but are seldom seen in a routine smear.
What should you do when Babesia bigemina is diagnosed?
Both the protozoan and its tick intermediate host should be reported to state and federal authorities.
How is Tritrichomonas foetus typically spread through a bovine herd?
By the bull
This protozoans' usual location is the prepuce of bulls and vagina, cervix, and uterus of cows
Which infections are typically asymptomatic and self-limiting?
Infections with Eimeria leuckarti
Do Babesia species use the same intermediate host?
Each species of Babesia uses a different tick intermediate host.
When have pathologic effects of Klossiella due to inflammation been reported?
Only in immune-compromised horses
What causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)?
Sarcocystis neurona can invade the central nervous system of the horse and cause EPM.
What is the prepatent period for Cystoisospora suis?
A short 4 to 8 days
What should also be suspected, if Heterakis gallinarum ova are found on fecal flotation?
What can a severe infection of Trichomonas gallinae result in?
The parasite can spread to the esophagus and even to the liver.
Are Trypanosoma species a major concern in cockatoos?
No, as they rarely produce clinical disease.
What infects turtles and lizards?
Some species of Haemoproteus.
What does the Leucocytozoon parasite do?
It distorts the WBC to the point that it may not be recognized as such.
What does Cystoisospara serini cause in canaries and finches?
Name the different rabbit infecting coccidia parasites and their locations.
*E. irresidua, E. magna, E. media, and E. perforans all infect the small intestine
*E. stiedai infects the bile ducts
What is a highly pathogenic coccidian of rabbits?
Which flagellates of mice are commonly found in diarrhea?
Tetratrichomonas microti and Tritrichomonas muris because diarrhea supplies an optimal habitat for multiplication.
Spironucleus muris vs. Giardia assemblage G
They appear similar on fecal flotation, but the trophozoite of Spironucleus muris in uniformly slender compared to the widened anterior end of Giardia species on direct smear.
Does finding Eimeria spp. oocysts mean that this organism is the primary cause of disease?
Can you detect Klossiella muris antemortem?
Is E. nieschultzi common in both pet and wild rats?
No, it's uncommon in pet rats but common in wild rats.
Do hamsters carry flagellates?
Yes, hamsters carry numerous intestinal flagellates but don't tend to show clinical signs of these protozoans.
Is Giardia assemblage G considered a public health hazard?
When do Tritrichomonas caviae typically proliferate?
They typically proliferate (as a secondary infection) in the presence of another pathogen causing diarrhea due to the fluid medium produced by the diarrhea.
How can you find Entamoeba caviae?
It can be found on fecal flotation and direct fecal smears.
It is essentially nonpathogenic but can cause symptoms in young stressed animals with poor nutrition and husbandry.
What is the preferred diagnostic test for Cryptosporidium wrairi?
Examination of fresh mucosal scrapings of the intestinal villi.
How do you diagnose Ichthyophthirius multifiliis?
By observation of typical lesions and skin scrapings.
Oval cyst with a refractile wall and two to four nuclei - may by distorted to semilunar appearance on standard fecal flotation
Amebic dysentery in humans
Very large ciliated protozoan found in the large intestine of swine
Most commonly diagnosed clinical condition in puppies and kittens (coccidiosis)
Cystoisospora species in dogs and cats
Intestinal protozoan of cats (only definitive host) - zoonotic parasite
Hemoprotozoan of Central and South America with two forms: trypomastigote and amastigote (zoonotic parasite)
Canine piroplasm - basophilic, pear-shaped organism within canine RBCs
Feline piroplasm - "bejeweled ring" within stained RBCs of cats
"Onion skin" tissue cysts found in skeletal muscle of dogs transmitted by ingestion of tick, Amblyomma americanum
"Mutuals" of cattle
Coccidiosis in cattle
Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii
Colorless sporulated oocysts - 3-5 µm in diameter on fecal flotation (zoonotic parasite)
Piroplasm of cattle transmitted by tick, Boophilus annulatus
Protozoan parasite residing in reproductive tract of cattle
"Mutuals" of horses
Cecal ciliates of horses
Unique oocysts that are the largest of the coccidians
Coccidian found in small intestine of horse
- typically asymptomatic and self-limiting
Pear-shaped organisms that may join, giving the effect of a Maltese cross
Oocysts found on histopathologic examination of the horse kidney and in urine sediment
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
Nonpathogenic coccidian found in kidneys of wild and laboratory rats
Coccidian that parasitizes the small intestine of swine, especially young piglets
Infectious enterohepatitis - "blackhead" in turkeys - intermediate host is Heterakis gallinarum
Found within crop washes and crop swabs of pigeons, doves, and poultry
Bluish, sausage-shaped body within the cytoplasm of the avian RBC
Plasmodium species of birds
Greatly distorts the shape of the avian WBC
Coccidiosis within the bile ducts of the liver of rabbits
Cecal ciliate of guinea pig - usually nonpathogenic, but may by observed in diarrheic conditions
Ciliate infecting the skin, gills, fins, and eyes of freshwater tropical and ornamental fish in home aquaria