Chpt. 12, Tang and Song Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 12, Tang and Song Deck (26)
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1
Q

Li Yuan

A

also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of the Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu

2
Q

Chang’an

A

capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at the time

3
Q

Ministry of Rites

A

administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars

4
Q

jinshi

A

title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office

5
Q

pure land Buddhism (Mahayana)

A

emphasized salvationist aspect of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society

6
Q

Chan Buddhism in China; Zen Buddhism in Japan

A

type of Buddhism that stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society

7
Q

Empress Wu

A

Tang ruler from 690-705 in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created

8
Q

Emperor Wuzong

A

Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in the 800s

9
Q

Xuanzong

A

leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion

10
Q

Yang Guifei

A

royal concubine during the reign of Xuanzong; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt

11
Q

Zhao Kuangyin

A

founder of the Song dynasty; originally a general following the fall of the Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent

12
Q

Liao dynasty

A

founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China

13
Q

Khitans

A

nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in the 11th century

14
Q

Zhu Xi

A

most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action

15
Q

neo-Confucians

A

they revived the ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences

16
Q

Tangut

A

ruler of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of the regional kingdoms during the period of the southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1126

17
Q

Xi Xia

A

the Kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry

18
Q

Wang Anshi

A

Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in the 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advanced greater state intervention in society

19
Q

Jurchens

A

founder of the Qin (Jin) kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south

20
Q

Jin

A

kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended

21
Q

Southern Song

A

rump state of Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song; culturally one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history

22
Q

Grand Canal

A

built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original center of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1,200 miles long

23
Q

junks

A

Chinese sailing ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

24
Q

flying money

A

Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery, established early form of currency

25
Q

foot binding

A

practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller, produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household

26
Q

Li Bo

A

most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical images