Chpt 13 (14) - Lymph & Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt 13 (14) - Lymph & Immune System Deck (64):
1

Lymphatic System: Functions

- Reduces tissue edema (swelling)

- Returns proteins from interstitial fluid back to blood

- Traps and Filters cellular debris and foreign substance; bacteria, toxins, cancer cells, viruses, pathogens

- Recycles body fluid

- Circulates lymphocytes to assist with immune function

- Transports fats from GI tract back to blood stream

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Immune System: Functions

- Protects the body from foreign invasion

- Coordinates activities in the blood stream, tissues, and lymph to protect body from invasion

- Fights infection and protects against future infections by producing antibodies and immune cells

- Production of immunoglobulin (Antibodies)

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Lymphatic System

1 way "drainage" of tissue plasma back to heart to lower edema (swelling) of body's tissue

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Afferent Lymphatic Vessels

Bring fluid into lymph nodes

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Efferent Lymphatic Vessels

Allow fluid to leave lymph nodes

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Germinal Centers (follicle)

"Filter" sites within lymph nodes which contain macrophages to filter fluid

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Hilus

Area of lymph node where efferent vessels exit

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Medulla

Center of lymph node

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Capsule

Outer shell of lymph node

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Papilteal

Region around knee containing lymph nodes

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Inguinal and Femoral

Region around groin and femur point which contains lymph nodes

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Mesenteric

RLQ, above Inguinal which contains lymph nodes

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Spleenic

LUQ, spleen as a lymph node

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Mediastinal

Region in middle of chest which contains lymph nodes

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Axillary

Region near armpits which contain lymph nodes

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Infraclavicular

Region near clavicle which contains lymph nodes

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Cervical

Region around throat which contains lymph nodes

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Hilar

Region near heart that contains lymph nodes

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Lymph Pathways

Vessels that transport lymph fluid
- Lymph capillaries
- Receive fluid and debris
- Moves one way, toward heart
- Valves encourage one way flow

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Lymph Nodes

- Located near joints
- Filter foreign substances

- Primary Filtering agents:
- Macrophages
- Lymphocytes

*No lymph nodes in CNS*

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Spleen

- Largest lymph organ

- LUQ of abdomen

- Removes: Bacteria, Old RBCs

- Filters Blood

- Produces antibodies

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Cells of Immune System

Stem Cells produce:
- Lymphoid
- Myeloid

- Lymphoid produce:
- Lymphocytes
- B Cells
- T Cells

- Myeloid produce:
- Granulocytes
- Neutrophils
- Eosinophils
- Basophils

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Lymph and Immune Systems

- Share same structure and function roles
- Both Contain:
- Spleen
- Lymph Nodes
- Thymus
- Immune Cells (Leukocytes)

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B Cells

Secrete Antibodies

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Cytotoxic T Cells

Engulf and kill cancer and infected cells

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Helper T Cells (T4)

Activate B Cells and Cytotoxic T Cells

- Affected by HIV

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From Leukocytes

Neutrophils - Phagocytes

Basophils - Inflammation

Eosinophils - Parasite Infection

Lymphocytes - Specific Immune Response

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Neutrophils

Engulf bacteria and cellular debris; Frontline of immunity

- Myeloid

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Lymphocytes

Produce Antibodies and regulate immune response (B & T Cells)

- Specific Immunity

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Monocytes

Associated with engulfing cellular debris, antigen processing

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Eosinophils

Associated with parasitic infection and allergic response
- Myeloid

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Basophils

Associated with hypersensitivity and release histamine

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Helper T Cells

Used to activate B Cells to release antibodies to go fight pathogen

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Defense Against Pathogen

Pathogen: Disease producing agent

Mechanical & Chemical Defenses:
- Skin; Mucus Membranes, Cilia
- Gastric Juices

Natural Immunity:
- Natural resistance to certain disease

Acquired Immunity:
- Exposure to pathogen or vaccination
- Humoral and Cell Mediated

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Humoral Immunity

B cells which become plasma cells:
- Secrete immunoglobulin (antibodies)
- IgG: Bacteria, virus, toxins activate this antibody
- IgA: In breast milk, tears, nasal fluid, saliva, gastric juice
- IgM: Bacteria, virus' activate this antibody first
- IgE: Important in Allergic Reaction

36

Cell Mediated Immunity (T Cells)

- Acquired active immunity: by T Cell action

- T Cells specific to antigen
- Reproduce and secrete cytokines / lymphokines
- T Cells also activate B cells which secrete antibodies

- Helper T Cells: T4 that stimulate immune response
- Cytotoxic T Cells: T8 destroy infected cells

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Aden (o)

Gland

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Immun (o)

Immunity

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Lymph (o)

Lymph

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Lymphaden (o)

Lymph Nodes

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Lymphangi (o)

Lymphatic Vessels

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Splen (o)

Spleen

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Thym (o)

Thymus

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Tox (o); Toxic (o); Toxi

Poison

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ALL

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

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AML

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

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CLL

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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CML

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

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CMV

Cytomegalo Virus

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PCP

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

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* EBV *

Epstein-Barr Virus

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HSV

Herpes Simplex Virus

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Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Lymph cancer usually appears in early adulthood

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Non-Hodgkin's

Lymph cancer with some healthy cells and spreading in diffusive pattern; appears in middle or older age

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Hypersplenism

Overactive enlarged spleen

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Anaphylaxis

Life-threatening allergic reaction

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Mononucleosis

EBV infection

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Splenomegaly

Enlarged spleen

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Thymoma

Tumor of thymus gland

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Sarcoidosis

Inflammatory condition with lesions involving the lymph nodes, lungs, and other organs

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Lymphadenectomy

Removal of lymph node

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Lymphadenotomy

Incision into a lymph node

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Splenectomy

Removal of spleen

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Thymectomy

Removal of thymus gland