Chpt. 2 - Key Terms Flashcards Preview

Anesthesia > Chpt. 2 - Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 2 - Key Terms Deck (54):
1

Auscultation

To listen to sounds made by internal organs with a stethoscope, especially the heart and lungs.

2

Body condition score

A numeric assessment of the patient's body weight compared with the ideal body weight.

3

Borborygmus

Intestinal noises audible with or without a stethoscope, caused by gas moving through the intestinal tract.

4

Cachexia

Weight loss, loss of muscle mass, and general debilitation that may accompany chronic diseases.

5

Cardiac output

CO
Total blood flow from the heart per unit time.

6

Colloids

Large-molecular-weight plasma proteins that provide oncotic pressure.

7

Comatose

In a sleeplike state. Unresponsive to all stimuli including pain.

8

Consent form

A form signed by the client confirming that he or she has been told about and understands the nature of the procedure to be performed, including the risks involved. Commonly includes a statement releasing VIC, the hospital, and other health care providers from responsibility for uncontrollable outcomes.

9

Constant rate infusion

CRI
Slow continuous administration of a drug at a rate sufficient to achieve the desired effect.

10

Crystalloids

Fluids that contain water and small-molecular-weight solutes (such as NaCl) and that pass freely through vascular endothelium.

11

Cyanosis

Blue discoloration of the MMs.

12

Dead space

The breathing passages and tubes that convey fresh oxygen from the source (the atmosphere or the breathing circuit) to the alveoli, but in which no gas exchange can occur.
Anatomic dead space includes the bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity.
Mechanical dead space includes the Y-piece of the breathing circuit, where there is bidirectional flow of gases, and the portion of the endotracheal tube extending beyond the nose or the Y-piece and face mask.

13

Debilitated

Lacking strength; weak.

14

Drip rate

The number of drops (gtt) the IV solution is dripping at, e.g. gtt/min or gtt/sec.

15

Dyspneic

Difficulty or labored breathing.

16

Ecchymoses

Large bruises. Discolorations of the skin or MMs caused by leakage of blood into the tissues.

17

Extra-label drug use

The use of an approved drug in a manner that is not in accordance with the approved label directions.

18

Gastric dilatation-volvulus

A dangerous GI condition, occurring primarily in deep-chested large breed dogs, in which the stomach swells with air and twists on its long axis, leading to shock, loss of blood supply, and other serious consequences.

19

Homeostasis

A constant state within the body created and maintained by normal physiologic processes.

20

Hypercarbia

Elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood.

21

Hypotension

Low BP; the opposite of hypertension.

22

Hypothermia

Low body temp; the opposite of hyperthermia.

23

Hypoxemia

Low blood oxygen level.

24

Hypoxia

Low tissue oxygen level.

25

Ileus

Intestinal obstruction caused by inhibition of bowel motility; also referred to as gastrointestinal stasis.

26

Infusion rate

The desired rate at which a drug should be administered to achieve a steady state of a fixed dose which has been demonstrated to be therapeutically effective.

27

Inotropy

Force of heart muscle contraction.

28

Intact

Possessing gonads. Not spayed or castrated.

29

Lethargic

Depressed but able to be aroused with minimal difficulty.

30

Level of consciousness

The patient's responsiveness to stimuli. How easily the patient can be aroused. Often used to assess brain function.

31

Macrodrip

Use a macrodrip set (10 or 15 gtt/mL) for infusion rates equal to or greater than 100 mL/hr or for patients weighing 10 kg or more.

32

Microdrip

Use a microdrip set (60 gtt/mL) for infusion rates less than 100 mL/hr or for patients weighing less than 10 kg.

33

Minimum patient database

A compilation of pertinent information from the patient history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Used to diagnose and manage a case.

34

Miosis

Constriction of the pupil of the eye; opposite of mydriasis.

35

Moribund

Near death.

36

Obtunded

Depressed and unable to be fully aroused.

37

Oncotic pressure

Osmotic pressure provided by large-molecular-weight colloids such as albumin.

38

Osmolarity

A measurement of the number of dissolved solute particles per unit water in body fluids. Usually expressed as osmoles or milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L) of water.

39

Osmotic pressure

The pressure required to prevent water flow through a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.

40

Petechiae

Small or pinpoint purple discolorations of the skin or MM resulting from hemorrhage. Smaller than purpura.

41

Physical status classification

A graded assessment of a patient's physical condition. Used to plan patient management prior to administering anesthetics and to gauge patient risk.

42

Purpura

Purple discolorations of the skin or MM caused by hemorrhage. Larger than petechiae.

43

Regurgitation

Flow of stomach contents into the esophagus and mouth unaccompanied by retching; as distinguished from vomiting, which is a forceful expulsion of stomach contents into the esophagus and mouth preceded by retching.

44

Reproductive status

Whether or not the patient has been spayed or castrated. If intact, whether or not the patient is being used for breeding. In the case of female patients, whether pregnant or not.

45

Solutes

Atoms or molecules dissolved in body water.

46

Signalment

The species, breed, age, sex, and reproductive status of a patient.

47

Sloughing

Separation of dead tissue from surrounding live tissue in a wound. Often used in reference to tissue death and loss secondary to drug-induced damage.

48

Stridor

Noisy breathing caused by turbulent air flow in the upper airways.

49

Stuporous

In a sleeplike state. Can be aroused only with a painful stimulus.

50

Syncope

Fainting episodes caused by brain hypoxia.

51

Thrombocytopenia

Low platelet count.

52

Vasodilation

Dilation of the blood vessels; the opposite of vasoconstriction.

53

Vesicants

Drugs that damage tissues if injected perivascularly.

54

Veterinarian-in-charge (VIC)

The DVM responsible for the management and welfare of a particular patient.