Chpt. 25, Latin American Consolidation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 25, Latin American Consolidation Deck (30)
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1
Q

Toussaint L’Overture

A

the leader of a slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791 that led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804

2
Q

Father Miguel de Hidalgo

A

a Mexican priest who established an independence movement among the American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, he was captured and executed in 1811

3
Q

Agustin de Iturbide

A

a conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who signed an agreement with insurgent forces of independence whom he had been sent to fight; their combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; he was later proclaimed the emperor of Mexico until it’s collapse in 1824

4
Q

Simon Bolivar

A

a creole military officer in northern South America who won a series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; his military success led to the creation of an independent state of Gran Colombia

5
Q

Gran Columbia

A

an independent state created in South America as a result of the military successes of Simon Bolivar; it existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations

6
Q

Jose de San Martin

A

a leader of the struggle for independence in southern South America; born in Argentina, he served in the Spanish army but joined in the movement for independence and led the revolutionary army that crossed the Andes and helped to liberate Chile in 1817-18, later collaborating with Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Peru; as “protector of Peru” he instituted a number of liberal reforms, and for political reasons he went into exile in Europe

7
Q

Joāo 6

A

a Portuguese monarch who established a seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula; he made Brazil the seat of his empire with it’s capital at Rio de Janeiro

8
Q

Pedro 1

A

the son and successor of Joāo 6 in Brazil, he aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822, and he became the constitutional emperor of Brazil after it achieved sovereignty

9
Q

Andrés Santa Cruz

A

a mestizo general who established a union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839

10
Q

caudillos

A

independent leaders who dominated local areas by force and in defiance of national policies; they sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule, and they were typical throughout the newly independent countries of Latin America

11
Q

Centralists

A

Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers, and often were supported by people who described themselves as conservatives

12
Q

Federalists

A

Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; they often were supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals

13
Q

Juan Manuel de Rosas

A

a strongman leader in Buenos Aires who took power in 1831 and who commanded the loyalty of the gauchos and restored local autonomy

14
Q

General Antonio López de Santa Anna

A

a general who seized power in Mexico after the collapse of the empire of Mexico in 1824; after a brief reign of liberals, he seized power in 1835 as caudillo, but was defeated by Texans in a war for independence in 1836, and was defeated again by the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1848; he was unseated by rebellion in 1854

15
Q

Monroe Doctrine

A

an American declaration stated in 1823 that established any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas as an unfriendly act against the United States, and which was supported by Great Britain as a means of opening Latin American trade

16
Q

guano

A

bird droppings utilized as fertilizer that was exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from this trade permitted an end to the American Indian tribute and to the abolition of slavery

17
Q

positivism

A

a French philosophy based on observation and a scientific approach to the problems of society, it was adopted by many Latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence

18
Q

Auguste Comte

A

a French philosopher in the 19th century who founded positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society

19
Q

Manifest Destiny

A

a belief held by many in that US at that time that the US was destined to rule the North American continent from coast to coast, and which led to the annexation of Texas as well as to the Mexican-American War

20
Q

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

A

an agreement in 1848 that ended the Mexican-American War and provided for the loss of Texas and California to the United States, leaving a legacy of distrust of the US by Latin America

21
Q

Mexican-American War

A

a war fought between Mexico and the US from 1846 to 1848 that led to a devastating defeat of Mexican forces and a loss of about one-half of Mexico’s national territory to the United States

22
Q

Benito Juárez

A

the Indian governor of the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, he was the leader of a liberal rebellion against Santa Anna, and his liberal government was defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon 3 of France and the establishment of the Mexican Empire under Maximilian; he was restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872

23
Q

La Reforma

A

the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of Santa Anna

24
Q

Maximilian von Habsburg

A

an Austrian, he was proclaimed by Napoleon 3 of France as Emperor Maximilian of Mexico following the intervention of France in 1862, and he ruled until his overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867

25
Q

Argentine Republic

A

replaced the state of Buenos Aires in 1862, and was the result of compromise between centralists and federalists

26
Q

Domingo F. Sarmiento

A

a liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic from 1868 to 1874, he was the author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; he increased international trade and launched internal reforms in education and transportation

27
Q

fazendas

A

coffee estates that spread within the interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860, and created a major export commodity for Brazilian trade that led to the intensification of slavery in Brazil

28
Q

cientificos

A

advisors of the government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas, and permitted the Mexican government to project an image of modernization

29
Q

Spanish-American War

A

a war fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898 that was centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; it resulted in American intervention in the Caribbean, as well as the annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the US

30
Q

Panama Canal

A

an aspect of American intervention in Latin America that resulted from the United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; is provided a short route between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, and was completed in 1914