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Flashcards in Chpt 3 and 4 Quiz Deck (21):

Evocative gene-environment interaction

children’s genetic endowment causes them to act in a way that draws out or “evokes” certain responses from those around them

Ex: if you have a certain form of a gene related to the production of the hormone ocytocin you will be more outgoing and less shy)


Pleiotropic Effect

means one gene influences a variety of outcomes like when one gene is implicated in aggression and in regulating heart rate.


How long can a seal hold it's breath underwater

Depends on the size and breed. Up to 100 minutes


Speed of light

186,000 miles per second


Molecular Genetics

Identification of particular genes to discover how these genes work within the cell



23 chromosomes from each one pair up to form 23 pairs of chromosomes (chromosomes are made of chains of DNA that twirl around each other; there are 4 nitrogenous bases that make up DNA: guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine



the degree to which the expression of a gene is influenced by the environment

here we look at the impact of environment: environmental deprivation like in low income family limits the child’s ability to express genes for high intelligence and restricts them to a narrow range of outcomes compared to a child raised in a higher income status environment who will express his/her level of intelligence


Average house fly age

15-30 days


Scientific Method (Order)

Collect Data
Draw Conclusions



these are predictions or educated guesses about what we observe in the world.


Passive gene-environment interaction

a child’s family shares genetically determined abilities and interests

Ex: genes don’t have to do much to be expressed because children are born into a family that provides them with both their genes and an environment that encourages the expression of those genes; example is your mother being a famous violinist and you inherit those genes and your parents provided an environment that supports your growth as a violinist


Operational Definition

defining a concept in a way that allows it to be measured.



complete sequence of these bases are the genetic instructions. Areas work together providing codes to make proteins to structure the function of the body – these areas are called genes.


Scientific Method (Purpose)

Created by the greeks

scientific method helps us:

organize knowledge
generate new ideas/theories
ask questions
test them –then reject or accept the premise


Concordance rate

the degree to which a trait or ability of one individual is similar to another; a higher concordance rate between child and birth parents shows the influence of the genes and a higher concordance rate between child and adoptive parent shows the influence of the environment


Behavioral Genetics

Determining the degree of genetic basis for a behavior, a trait, or an ability through studies of twins and adopted children


Human Genome Project

mapped all the genes that make up the human body (there are about 25,000 genes; we try to identify the genes in the genome and what they do; genes are sets of instructions; we try to understand the sequences of the 4 bases like ATCATCTTTGGTGTT and determine which sequences give clear instructions to produce proteins)

All human beings share 99.5% of there genome- the remaining one half of 1% is what contributes to our differences.

Genes determine everything about our genetic inheritance.

We know what only about half of these genes actually do.


Behavioral Epigenetics

a system by which genes are activated or silenced in response to events or circumstances in the individual’s environment

all living things have chemical tags that can turn a gene’s activity on or off; tags can be influenced by environment;

rat babies reared by mothers that ignored them and not touch them were more fearful and stressed by environmental events in their lives shown by their levels of stress hormones; the genes were turned off in these neglected baby rats


Active gene-environment interaction

one’s genetic endowment becomes a driving force for children to seek out experiences that fit their genetic endowments

Ex: a child with genes that promotes risk taking is drawn to snowboarding or bungee jumping and a child with a genetic predisposition to be timid will will seek out activities that are solitary and not exciting)



Chromosomes are made up of genes*,

Genes are made up of DNA .

DNA is made up of 4 nitrogenous bases:
Guanine (G), adenine (A),
thymine (T), cytosine (C)

The order of the bases determines which proteins are produced.



female’s egg cells and man’s sperm cells bring 23 chromosomes each; sperm penetrates mother’s egg and this is fertilization