Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East Flashcards Preview

AP World Learning > Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East Deck (31):
1

Cyrus the Great

a great Middle Eastern conqueror who emerged in 550 BCE and established the massive Persian (Achaemenid) Empire

2

Zoroastrianism

a religion that arose in Persia, founded by Zoroaster (630 – 550 BCE), that emphasized the battle between good and evil, and the importance of personal moral choice in choosing one or the other; their priests are known as Magi

3

Olympic games

one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and religious celebrations

4

Pericles

Athenian political leader during the 5th century BCE; died during early stages of Peloponnesian War

5

Peloponnesian Wars

wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Sparta and Athens for dominance in Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve unity in Greece

6

Phillip 2

ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority

7

Hellenic

the adjective used to describe classical Greece, especially its culture

8

Hellenistic

the adjective used to describe the blending of the culture of Greece, Persia, and India, and Egypt that occurred when Alexander the Conqueror united these areas under his rule

9

Alexandria, Egypt

site of ancient Mediterrenean’s greatest library; center of literary studies

10

Roman Republic

founded with a constitution c. 510 and lasting until 47 BC, this featured an aristocratic Senate, a panel of magistrates, and several popular assemblies

11

Punic Wars

from 264 – 146 BCE, fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean; won by Rome after three separate conflicts

12

Carthage

originally a Phoenician colony in northern Africa, it became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic Wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean

13

Hannibal

a great Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War; successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally was defeated at the Battle of Zama

14

Julius Caesar

a Roman general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew the republic; assassinated in 44 BC by conservative senators

15

Augustus Caesar

the name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; the first emperor of Rome

16

Diocletian

a Roman emperor from 284 to 305 CE who restored the later empire by improving administration and tax collection

17

Constantine

a Roman emperor from 312 to 337 CE; he established a second capital at Constantinople and attempted to use the religious force of Christianity to unify his empire spiritually

18

polis

city-state form of government; typ-ical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 BC

19

direct democracy

where people participate directly in assemblies that make laws and select leaders, rather than electing representatives

20

Senate

the assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of Roman constitution; they formed the legislative branch of Roman government

21

consuls

two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman Republic; elected annually by aristocrat dominated assembly; they formed the executive branch of Roman government

22

Cicero

(106-43 BCE) conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; one of great orators of his day, killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar

23

Aristotle

a Greek philosopher; the teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in the natural world

24

Stoicism

a Hellenistic group of philosophers who emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery; it was a philosophy originally attributed to a freed slave named Zeno

25

Socrates

an Athenian philosopher of the later 5th century BC; tutor of Plato, he urged rational reflection of moral decisions and was condemned to death for corrupting the minds of the Athenian young

26

Sophocles

Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex

27

Iliad

a Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek myths; it told the tale of the Trojan War

28

Odyssey

a Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek myths

29

Doric

along with Ionic and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles

30

Ionic

along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; more ornate than Doric but less than Corinthian

31

Corinthian

along with Doric and Ionic, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the most ornate of the three styles