Chpt 42 Stress & Coping Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals Exam 3 > Chpt 42 Stress & Coping > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt 42 Stress & Coping Deck (33):
1

Define stressor

Any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress

2

What are some sources of stress?

Internal stressors: within a person; infection or depressing.
External stressors:outside the individual;big move to diff city,death in family.developmental stressors. And situational stressors.

3

Define stress

A condition in which the person experiences changes in the normal balanced state.

4

define coping
and
coping strategy(coping mechanism)

dealing with change;
a natural or learned way of responding to a changing environment or specific problem/situation.

5

what are some disorders that can be caused by stress?

-skin disorders(exzema,psoriasis)
-respiratory disorders(asthma, hay fever, TB)
-CVD(CHF, Hypertension)
-Gi disorders(constipation, diarrhea,anorexia,obesity)
-Menstrual irregularities

6

What are some effects of stress?

Physical
Emotional
Intellectual
Social
Spiritual
impacts

7

Effects of Stress
cont :

-Usually are mixed because stress affects the whole person
-Even good stress can be hard on your health
-Cumulative stress increases risk of health impacts

8

Stess models

-Assist nurses to predict stressors
-Helps nurse to understand individual’s response
-May use models to assist clients in developing healthy coping strategies

9

General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS)

-Developed by Selye
-Stress is a nonspecific response of the body to any kind of demand made upon it (physical, social, psychological)
-Stress can be observed only by the changes it produces in the body
-Occurs with the release of adaptive hormones and changes in the body
-3 stages-alarm reaction,stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion

10

Alarm Reaction

alerts the body’s defenses
Shock Phase—full tilt “fight or flight”, cascade of “stress” hormones flood the blood stream
Countershock Phase—recovery and normalization

11

Stage of Resistance:

body adapts and attempts to limit response to the smallest possible (stress ulcers, stress headaches)

12

Stage of Exhaustion:

adaptation cannot be maintained, extensive generalized consequences to health, physical exhaustion, death if not “rescued” (learn to cope, reduce the stress, etc)

13

Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome

Homeostasis---alarm---resistance---exhaustion---death or recovery

14

what are some indicators of stress?

-Physiologic
-Cognitive
-Psychological

15

Physiologic Indicators of Stress

-THINK SNS-Sympathetic&neuroendocrine systems)
-Pupils dilate
Sweat production increases
Heart rate and cardiac output increase
Skin is pallid
Sodium and water retained
Rate and depth of respiration increase
Urinary output decreases
Mouth may be dry
Peristalsis of the intestines decrease for serious threats
Mental alertness improves
Blood sugar increases

16

Psychological Indicators of Stress

Angry
Short Tempered
Depressed
Defensive
Anxious
Fearful
Withdrawn

17

Anxiety

A state of mental uneasiness
Source may or may not be identifiable
Vague
Result of psychological or emotional conflict

18

Fear


An emotion or feeling of apprehension
Source is identifiable
Definite
Result of a specific physical or psychological entity

19

Defense Mechanisms

Compensation Projection
Rationalization
Reaction formation
Regression
Repression
Sublimation
Substitution
Undoing
Denial
Displacement
Identification
Intellectualization
Introjection
Minimization

20

Cognitive Indicatorsof Stress

Problem solving
Structuring, controlling environment
Self-control or self-discipline
Suppression
Fantasy

21

Coping strategy is

natural or learned way of responding to changing environment or specific problem or situation

22

Types of Coping

Problem-focused
Emotion-focused
Both types usually occur together

23

Problem-focused coping

Efforts to improve situation by making changes or taking action

24

Emotion-focused coping

Thoughts and actions that relieve emotional distress
Doesn’t improve situation but person feels better
Change thinking around the situation

25

Coping Mechanisms

Lifestyle changes
Medication
Therapy

26

Nursing Diagnoses Related to Stress

Anxiety
Caregiver Role Strain
Compromised Family Coping
Decisional Conflict (Specify)
Defensive Coping
Disabled Family Coping

Fear
Impaired Adjustment
Ineffective Coping
Ineffective Denial
Post-Trauma Syndrome
Relocation Stress Syndrome

27

Interventions to Minimize and Manage Stress

Physical Exercise
Optimal Nutrition
Adequate Rest and Sleep
Time
Management

28

Physical exercise
Interventions

Promotes physical and emotional health
60 minutes/day recommended

29

Optimal nutrition
interventions

Essential for health
Increases resistance to stress
Avoid excesses of caffeine, salt, sugar, fat
Avoid vitamin deficiencies

30

Sleep
interventions

Restores body’s energy level
May need to use relaxation techniques
Need deep, full cycle sleep

31

Time management
Interventions

Must address what is important and achievable
Reexamine “should do”, “ought to do”, “must do”

32

Reducing Client Stress

Other methods include:
Listen attentively
Provide atmosphere of warmth and trust
Convey sense of caring and empathy
Include client in plan of care

33

Reducing Client Stress cont

Other methods include:
Promote feeling of safety and security
Minimize additional stressors
Help with recognition of stressors and coping mechanisms