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Flashcards in Chpt 5 & 6 Quiz Deck (35):
1

Second Stage of Labor

Early labor: contractions are usually not painful, cervix begins to thin out and dilate.
First time mothers the labor lasts 10-20 hours; contractions last 30-60 seconds and come every 5-20 minutes

Active labor: contractions become longer, stronger, and more frequent; cervix has dilated to 4 cms., lasts on average 3 to 8 hours; if contractions last I minute and come every 5 minutes female needs to go to hospital; she may need pain medication or will use relaxation strategies or half or women will get an epidural which decreases sensation in lower half of body; this phase lasts 3-8 hours.
Transition: contractions come in rapid succession and last up to 90 seconds each, lasts 15 minutes to 3 hours, ends when cervix has dilated to 10 cms.; this is when cervix dilates to 7 centimeters

2

Cerebral Palsy Cause

Caused by abnormal development of the brain or damage to it, either prenatally, during birth, or after birth up to age 3.
About 800,000 children and adults are diagnosed and the prevalence rate is largely unchanged over the past 40 years.

3

Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (0-3)

Morning sickness due to hormonal changes
Fatigue; breast tenderness

4

Hippocampus

processes and stores memory

5

Amygdala

contributes to emotions and moods, fight/flight response

6

Teratogens

agents that can disrupt prenatal development and cause malformations or termination of the pregnancy

Diseases include: rubella (German Measles: there’s a vaccine for it now) , syphilis, HIV or things mom ingests like alcohol, medications or drugs and toxins such as mercury in foods.

Teratogens can cause small or deformed head or limbs, functional deficits such as hearing loss or intellectual disabilities.
The magnitude of the effect depends on when in the prenatal period the fetus is exposed, the amount or dosage of the exposure and the length of time of the exposure.

Alcohol
Tobacco
Perscription and over-the-counter drugs

7

grey matter

What neurons and their synaptic connections make up

8

Experience-expectant Brain Development

occurs because our brain expects certain events to normally happen.

9

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Degree of Impairment: Mild to Severe

Pervasive developmental disorder that is linked with brain function.

10

Autism 3 Distinctive Behaviors

difficulties with social interaction
problems with verbal and nonverbal communication
repetitive, compulsive behavior or interests, restrictive behavior

11

Three Stages of Prenatal Development

Germinal
Embryonic
Fetal

12

Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (4-6)

Woman feels the baby moving (“quickening”)
Activity level prenatally predicts activity level of the baby after birth

13

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

the unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant

Leading cause of death for children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year
Risks between the ages of 1 month and 4 months
SIDS is likely caused by a combination of factors; abnormality in part of brain that controls breathing; brain chemical imbalance or bacterial infection; second hand smoke
Prevention: have baby sleep on back, use firm mattress, keep blankets and pillow out of infants sleep area.

14

Miscarriage

The natural loss of a pregnancy before the fetus reaches a gestational age of 20 weeks.

Many factors may cause a miscarriage such as chromosomal abnormalities and in some cases it is unknown.

15

Schizophrenia

about 1% of the population

It is related to structural and functional differences in many regions of the brain.

16

Fetal Stage

(2 months - birth)

Sexual differentiation: in male at 9 weeks testes begin to produce male hormone called androgen and in female genitalia continues developing and reproductive system developing.

Hormones also influence development of the brain
begins at 10 weeks; fetus braeathes in and expel amniotic fluid; at 12 weeks female feels movement; at 20 weeks moves lots and after this point fetal movement declines; at 32 weeks fetus spends 90% of its time sleeping

Prenatal “breathing” 

17

Third Stage of Labor

uterus contracts to expel placenta and no pain now and this stage lasts 5-10 minutes; if an episiotomy done then doctor closes the incision.

18

Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors

Risk Factors: premature birth, low birth weight. Maternal exposure to to toxins or infections, lack of oxygen during birth.
This condition does not progressively get worse; we want to intervene early.
Medications help control seizures and muscle spasms, physical therapy helps.
A new medication might help by regrowing myelin on nerve cells in the brain.
A lack of oxygen disrupts the nerve cell’s ability to create myelin – so cells die and this can result in cerebral palsy.

19

Germinal stage

0-2 weeks

Fertilization
Cell division
Creation of the blastula
Implantation in the uterine wall

Ovum (egg) released during ovulation; if sperm carries a Y chromosome in 23rd position you have male; if carries X have female.

Blastocyst becomes embryo.

After cells proliferate become blastocyst

About 12% of of women are infertile
About 20% of females don’t have their first child until age 35 or older; women waiting longer to have a child.

20

Experience-dependent Brain Development

is much more individual and depends on each person’s particular experiences. New synapses can develop in response to stimulation. A violinist uses their left hand to press on the strings – but this is regulated by the right hemisphere because it controls the left hand.

21

Schizophrenia Diagnosis

Diagnosis requires 2 or more of the following symptoms:
Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior (lack of reaction to environment), negative symptoms
These must be present for at least one month

Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, positive and negative symptoms

Symptoms often appear in late adolescence or early adulthood; in rare cases, an early-onset form may develop earlier.

22

Schizophrenia Causes

Genetic: If one identical twin is schizophrenic there is a 40%-60% chance the other will be Schizophrenic.

A fraternal twin has only a 5% to 15% chance of sharing this condition with the sibling.

Prenatal disruption of brain development by factors such as the mother’s experience of starvation or influenza can increase the risk of Schizophrenia.

Adolescent marijuana use can increase the risk for Sz for some teens who are more vulnerable because of a genetic predisposition , a dysfunctional environment.

23

Schizophrenia Treatment

Treatment includes medications and psychosocial or psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

These programs emphasize skill building in areas such as social skills, life skills, symptom management, problem solving, community integration, vocational rehabilitation.

24

Oldest turtle

186 years old
St. Helena Island

25

Pruning

when many connections do not survive because they are not used; they deteriorate.
Pruning strengthens the brain; destroying unused synapses

26

Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (7-9)

Fatigue and discomfort
Fetus “drops” to get into position for birth

27

Birthing Options

Where: hospital, home, birthing center
Birthing center does not include surgical procedures like epidurals or caesarian deliveries or induce labor with drugs.

Who helps: doctor, midwife, doulas and birth coaches support woman in delivery; using doulas decreases need for drugs or caesareans, less epidurals and it shortens labor; the doula’s presence reduces stress
We do cesareans if it’s a medical necessity by making incision in women’s lower abdomen

In non-Western cultures, the birth process may be quite different than in Western cultures; The Ifaluk in Micronesia in tiny island; in Pacific Ocean; birth in house with midwife and female relatives; when baby comes out she kneels on a mat helps baby out, she must try not to show pain and be calm, after baby out she bathes baby in ocean.

28

Embryonic Stage

(2 weeks - 2months)

Ectoderm: skin, sense organs, brain, and spinal cord.
Mesoderm: muscles, blood, bones, and circulatory system.
Endoderm: respiratory system, digestive system, liver, and pancreas.

Placenta brings nutrients and oxygen to embryo through umbilical cord and carrying away fetal waste.

Organogenesis: development of internal organs; heart begins to beat; this is a critical period of development; anything that causes damage is severe and irreversible

Cephalocaudal direction of development; head  down

Ultrasound can be done between 6-10 weeks to see if baby growing at expected rate

29

Plasticity

the ability of the brain to change in form and function

30

First Stage of Labor

Early labor: contractions are usually not painful, cervix begins to thin out and dilate.
First time mothers the labor lasts 10-20 hours; contractions last 30-60 seconds and come every 5-20 minutes

Active labor: contractions become longer, stronger, and more frequent; cervix has dilated to 4 cms., lasts on average 3 to 8 hours; if contractions last I minute and come every 5 minutes female needs to go to hospital; she may need pain medication or will use relaxation strategies or half or women will get an epidural which decreases sensation in lower half of body; this phase lasts 3-8 hours.
Transition: contractions come in rapid succession and last up to 90 seconds each, lasts 15 minutes to 3 hours, ends when cervix has dilated to 10 cms.; this is when cervix dilates to 7 centimeters

31

Abusive Head Trauma and Shaken Baby Syndrome

Causes bruising, bleeding, or swelling in the brain that can result in permanent brain damage or even death.

Symptoms of shaken baby syndrome: decreased alertness, extreme irritability, lethargy, sleepiness, poor feeding and vomiting.

Incidence is highest between 2-3 months of age.

32

Autism Causes

genetic because it tends to run in families; boys 4.5 times more likely than girls; if one identical twin has it - -the other one will have it about 36% to 95% of the time, less for non-identical twin 0% to 31%

We thought that mercury which is a preservative in the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine caused it – but more research found this is not a cause.

33

Autism Brain Scans

Brain imaging shows enlargement of the amygdala which is involved in emotional expression.
We also look at brain volume and it’s larger in Autistic kids.

Functional Differences shows it takes more effort for kids with Autism to interpret a speaker’s intention during social communication – means there’s hyperactivation in certain parts of brain.
Autistic kids may have deficits in working memory that affects language skills and cannot analyze emotions of facial expressions; may have difficulty differentiating objects from people.
Autistic kids may have less efficient connections between neurons.

34

Abortion

worldwide the rate is about 20% of pregnancies ending in abortion; in U.S reason women give is financial hardship, lack of support from partner and need to care for other children.

35

Cerebral Palsy

a group of brain based disorders affecting movement, balance and posture, speech, coordination.