Chpt. 5 - Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 5 - Key Terms Deck (30):
1

Apnea monitor

A monitor used to alert the anesthetist when the patient has not taken a breath within a set period of time (e.g. 10, 20, or 30 secs). Detects a change in the temperature of the air moving between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit as the patient breathes.

2

Atelectasis

Collapse of a portion or all of one or both lungs.

3

Blood gas analysis

Measurement of the pH, bicarbonate level, and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood (most often arterial blood obtained by an intraarterial catheter - i.e. used in horses more so than in small animals).

4

Calculated oxygen content

The total volume of oxygen in the blood including both dissolved and bound forms (expressed in milliliters per deciliter).
CaO2 = Calculated oxygen content in arterial blood.
Arterial oxygen content is calculated using the following formula: CaO2 = (Hb x 1.39 x Sao2/100) + (Pao2 x 0.003), where Hb = hemoglobin in grams per deciliter, Sao2 = oxygen saturation, and Pao2 = partial pressure of oxygen.

5

Capnogram

The graphic representation of CO2 levels generated by a capnograph.

6

Capnograph

Also known as an end-tidal CO2 monitor.
A monitoring device that measures the amount of CO2 in the air that is breathed in and out by the patient, by sampling air passing between the ET tube connector and the breathing circuit.

7

Cardiac arrhythmia

Any pattern of cardiac electrical activity that differs from that of the healthy awake animal.

8

Central venous pressure (CVP)

The blood pressure in a large central vein such as the anterior vena cava. Used to assess blood return to the heart and heart functions.

9

Circulation

HR & heart rhythm, pulse strength, CRT, MM color, and BP. (assessment during anesthesia)
Systemic circulation is the part of the CV system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

10

Diastolic blood pressure

Arterial blood pressure when the heart is in its resting phase between contractions.

11

Doppler blood flow detector

A monitoring device that uses ultrasound frequency to convert the motion of red blood cells in small arteries into an audible "whooshing" sound. Used to monitor pulse rate and, if used in conjunction with a sphygmomanometer, systolic blood pressure.

12

Esophageal stethoscope

A monitoring device used to detect and amplify heart sounds via a catheter placed in the esophagus.

13

Flaccid

Lacking any muscle tone.

14

Icterus

Yellow discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.

15

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

The average arterial blood pressure. It may be calculated using the following equation: MAP = Diastolic pressure + 1/3 (Systolic pressure - Diastolic pressure)

16

Monitor

Device used to display various measurements and alert anesthetist to any potential problems.

17

Oscillometer

A monitoring device used to measure systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressure by detecting and analyzing pulsations of blood in the arteries of an extremity.

18

Oxygenation

MM color, hemoglobin saturation, measurement of inspired oxygen, measurement of arterial blood oxygen (Pao2) (assessment during anesthesia)

19

Partial pressure of oxygen

Po2
A measurement of the unbound O2 molecules dissolved in the plasma expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
Pao2 = Po2 in arterial blood; Pvo2 = Po2 in venous blood.

20

Percent oxygen saturation

So2
A measurement of the percentage of the total hemoglobin binding sites occupied by oxygen molecules.
Sao2 = So2 in arterial blood; Svo2 = So2 in venous blood; Spo2 = So2 as measured by a pulse oximeter; Sto2 = So2 in the tissues.

21

Pressure transducer

An instrument designed to measure fluid pressure that converts the pressure wave form into an electrical signal.

22

Pulmonary thromboembolism

The presence of one or more blood clots in the lungs.

23

Pulse oximeter

A monitoring device used to estimate (1) the percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (Spo2) by measuring subtle differences in the light absorption, and (2) the pulse rate by detecting blood pulsations in the small arterioles.

24

Respiration

The process by which oxygen is supplied to and used by the tissues, and carbon dioxide is eliminated from the tissues.

25

Respirometer

A monitoring device used to measure the tidal volume and respiratory minute volume

26

Sphygmomanometer

A monitoring device consisting of a pressure gauge and cuff used to measure arterial blood pressure.

27

Systolic blood pressure

Arterial blood pressure during contraction of the ventricles.

28

Tachypnea

Rapid respiratory rate.

29

Ventilation

The movement of gases into and out of the alveoli.

30

Blood pressure (BP)

The force exerted by flowing blood on vessel walls.