Chpt. 6 - Key Terms Flashcards Preview

Anesthesia > Chpt. 6 - Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 6 - Key Terms Deck (24):
1

Assisted ventilation

A type of ventilation in which the anesthetist ensures that an adequate volume of air is delivered to the Pt, although the Pt initiates each inspiration.

2

Atelectasis

Alveolar collapse

3

Bagging

Inflating the Pt's lungs by squeezing the reservoir bag. Manual, positive-pressure ventilation.

4

Cauda equina

A group of nerves located at the caudal termination of the spinal cord in the spinal canal. So called because they visually resemble a horse's tail.

5

Controlled ventilation

A type of ventilation in which the anesthetist controls the respiratory rate, the tidal volume, and the peak inspiratory pressure. In this type of ventilation, the Pt does not make spontaneous respiratory efforts.

6

Epidural anesthesia

Regional anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic or analgesic into the epidural space surrounding the spinal cord.

7

Eutectic mixture

A mixture of two substances with a melting point that is lower than the individual melting points. In the case of lidocaine and prilocaine, which are both solids at room temperature, mixture of the two drugs results in an oil that has a melting point of 16*C.

8

Infiltration

Injection of local anesthetic into tissues, often in proximity to a nerve.

9

Intermittent mandatory ventilation

Positive pressure ventilation throughout the entire anesthetic period as the sole source of the Pt's ventilatory needs.

10

Line block

Injection of a continuous line of local anesthetic in the SQ or subcuticular tissues immediately proximal to the target area.

11

Local anesthesia

A loss of sensation in a small area of the body produced by administration of a local anesthetic agent in proximity to the area of interest.

12

Manual ventilation

Forced delivery of oxygen and anesthetic gases by squeezing of the reservoir bag of the anesthetic machine. May be used to provide periodic or intermittent mandatory ventilation.

13

Mechanical ventilation

Forced delivery of oxygen and anesthetic gases by use of mechanical ventilator. Usually used to provide intermittent mandatory ventilation.

14

Motor neurons

A neuron that conveys impulses from the brain to muscle fibers and is responsible for initiating and controlling voluntary movements.

15

Nerve blocks

Loss of sensation in a particular anatomic site, produced by injection of local anesthetic in proximity to a nerve.

16

Paralysis

Inability to move a particular muscle group or body part such as a limb because of loss of nerve function. May also involve a loss of sensation in the affected part.

17

Paresis

Weakness of a body part caused by loss of nerve function. Partial paralysis.

18

Respiratory minute volume

RMV
The amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs in a minute. The tidal volume multiplied by the respiratory rate.

19

Ring block

A type of line block that completely encircles an anatomic part, such as a digit or teat.

20

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine. Seen in cattle that have had a paravertebral block.

21

Sensory neurons

Neurons that convey sensations (i.e., pain, heat, cold, and pressure) from the skin, muscles, and other peripheral tissues to the brain.

22

Splash block

Local anesthesia produced by direct application of local anesthetic to a wound or open surgical site. Most often applied as a spray or with a soaked gauze sponge.

23

Sympathetic blockade

Loss of function of sympathetic nerves supplying the heart and blood vessels resulting from diffusion of local anesthetic into the thoracic spinal cord. Signs include bradycardia, decreased cardiac output, and hypotension. Blockade of the caudal sympathetic nerves results in less severe hypotension and tachycardia.

24

Tidal volume

VT
The volume of a normal breath (approx. 10 to 15 mL/kg BW).