Chpts 11 & 12 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chpts 11 & 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpts 11 & 12 Deck (347):
1

diastole

relaxation phase of heart beat

2

systole

contraction phase of heartbeat

3

angi/o

vessel

4

aort/o

aorta

5

stenosis

narrowing

6

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

7

arther/o

yellowish plaque, fatty substance

8

atheroma

collection of yellowish plaque

9

atri/o

atrium

10

brachi/o

arm

11

cardi/o

heart

12

cholesterol/o

cholesterol

13

coron/o

heart

14

cyan/o

blue

15

myx/o

mucus

16

artherosclerosis

abnormal condition of hardening yellowish plaque

17

ox/o

oxygen

18

pericardi/o

pericardium

19

phleb/o

vein
*also ven/o, ven/i

20

rrhythm/o

rhythm

21

sphygm/o

pulse

22

steth/o

chest

23

thromb/o

clot

24

valvul/o, valv/o

valve

25

vas/o

vessel
*also angi/o, vascul/o

26

vascul/o

vessel
*also angi/o, vas/o

27

ven/o, ven/i

vein
*also phleb/o

28

ventricul/o

ventricle

29

arrythmias

abnormal heart rhythms

30

bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)

Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle

31

flutter *

Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria

32

fibrilation *

Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart.

33

contraction of the aorta (CoA)

Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta

34

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Passageway (ductus arteriosus) bw the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth.
-ductus arteriosus normally closes after birth, but in this congenital condition, it remains open.

35

spetal defects

small holes in the wall bw the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)

36

tetralogy of Fallot

Congenital malformation involving four (tetra-) distinct heart defects.

37

ventricular septal defect

A hole in the ventricular septum causes blood to flow from the left ventricle to the right and into the lungs via the pulmonary artery

38

congestive heart failure (CHF)
How would you treat this?

heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
-Tread with LVAD

39

coronary artery disease (CAD)

Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart

40

endocarditis

Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

41

hypertensive heart disease

High bp affecting the heart

42

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

Improper closure of the mitral valve

43

murmur

Extra heart sound, heard bw normal beats

44

pericarditis

Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart.

45

rheumatic heart disease

Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.

46

aneurysm

local widening (dilation) of an aterial wall

47

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Blood clot (thrombosis) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb

48

hypertension (HTN)

High bp

49

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs

50

varicose veins

Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs.

51

Hemorrhoids (piles)

varicose veins near the anus.

52

claudication*

Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after WALKING has begun, but absence of pain at rest.

53

atrial fibrillation

P waves are replaced by irregular and rapid fluctuations. There are no effective atrial contractions.

54

ventricular tachycardia

ventricular rate high, can be up to 250 bpm. The rhythm is regular, but the atria aren't contributing to ventricular filling and blood output is poor

55

coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
What condition would you use this for?

Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
-Disabling angina and extensive coronary atherosclerosis despite medical therapy.

56

endarterectomy

Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery

57

extracorporeal circulation

extracorporeal = outside the body
Heart-lung machine divers blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired.
The machine uses the technique of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

58

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EXMO)

The technique the heart-lung machine uses in extracorporeal circulation

59

AAA

abnormal aortic aneurysm

60

ACLS

advanced cardiac life support

61

AED

automatic external defibrillator

62

AF

atrial fibrillation

63

a-fib

atrial fibrillation

64

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

65

AS

aortic stenosis

66

ASD

atrial septal defect

67

AV, A-V

atrioventricular

68

AVR

aortic valve replacement

69

BBB

bundle branch block

70

BP

blood pressure

71

CABG

coronary artery bypass grafting

72

CAD

coronary artery disease

73

CCU

coronary care unit

74

Cath

catheterization

75

CHF

congestive heart failure

76

CK

creatine kinase

77

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

78

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

79

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

80

ECG

electrocardiography

81

EKG

electrocardiography

82

ECHO

echocardiography

83

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

84

HTN

hypertension

85

LAD *

left anterior descending (coronary artery)

86

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

87

LV

left ventricle

88

LVAD

left ventricular assist device

89

LVH

left ventricular hypertrophy

90

MI

myocardial infarction

91

MVP

mitral valve prolapse

92

PAC

premature atrial contraction

93

PAD

peripheral arterial disease

94

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

95

PE

pulmonary embolus

96

PVC*

premature ventricular contraction

97

SA, S-A

sinoatrial node

98

SOB

shortness of breath

99

tPA

tissue-type plasminogen activator

100

VF

ventricular fibrillation

101

VSD

ventricular septal defect

102

VT

ventricular tachycardia

103

What would you use a coronary artery bypass grafting for?

Disabling angina and extensive coronary atherosclerosis despite medical therapy

104

What would you use a left carotid endarterectomy for?

Atherosclerotic occlusion of a main artery leading to the head.

105

What would you use a sclerosing injections and laser treatment for?

Varicose veins

106

What would you use LV aneurysmectomy for?

Protrusion of the wall of a lower heart chamber

107

What would you use atrial septal defect repair for?

Congenital hole in the wall of the upper chamber of the heart

108

What would you use a left ventricular assist device for?

Congestive heart failure

109

Why would you perform pericardiocentesis?

Cardiac tamponade (fluid in the space surrounding the heart)

110

Why would you perform an aortic valve replacement?

Aortic stenosis

111

Why would you do a pacemaker implantation?

Congenital hole in the wall of the upper chamber of the heart?

112

Why would you do femoral-popliteal bypass grafting?

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

113

Valve that lies bw the right atrium and the right ventricle

tricuspid valve

114

smallest blood vessel

capillary

115

carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

pulmonary vein

116

largest artery in the body

aorta

117

brings oxygen-poor blood into the heart from the upper parts of the body

superior vena cava

118

upper chamber of the heart

atrium

119

carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs from the heart

pulmonary artery

120

Small artery

arteriole

121

valve that lies bw the left atrium and the left ventricle

mitral valve

122

brings blood from the lower half of the body to the heart

inferior vena cava

123

small vein

venule

124

lower chamber of the heart

ventricle

125

hardening of arteries

arteriosclerosis

126

disease condition of the heart muscle

cardiomyopathy

127

enlargement of the heart

cardiomegaly

128

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

129

high levels of cholesterol in the blood

hypercholesterolemia

130

condition of rapid heartbeat

tachycardia

131

surgical repair of a valve

valvuloplasty

132

condition of deficient oxygen

hypoxia

133

pertaining to the upper heart chamber

atrial

134

narrowing of the mitral valve

mitralstenosis

135

breakdown of a clot

thrombolysis

136

cyanosis

= condition of blue
-bluish discoloration of the skin owing to deficient oxygen in the skin

137

phlebotomy

process of cutting into a vein

138

arterial anastomosis

new connection bw arteries

139

cardiogenic shock

circulatory failure due to poor heart function

140

atheroma

collection of yellowish plaque (fatty substance)

141

atherosclerosis

= condition of hardening yellow plaque
-hardening of the arteries with a yellow plaque

142

mitral valvulitis

inflammation of the mitral valve

143

stethoscope

=instrument to visually examine the chest
-instrument to listen to sounds within the chest

144

sphygomanometer

instrument to measure blood pressure

145

arrythmia

condition of abnormal heart rhythm

146

vasoconstriction

narrowing of a vessel

147

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

endocarditis

148

rapid but regular atrial or ventricular contractions

flutter

149

small hole bw the upper heart chambers; congenital anomaly

atrial septal defect

150

improper closure of the valve bw the left atrium and ventricle during systole

mitral valve prolapse

151

blockage of the arteries surrounding the heart leading to ischemia

coronary artery disease

152

high bp affecting the heart

hypertensive heart disease

153

rapid, random, ineffectual, and regular contractions of the heart

fibrillation

154

inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart

pericarditis

155

inability of the heart to pump its required amount of blood

congestive heart failure

156

congenital malformation involving 4 separate heart defects

tetrology of fallot

157

congenital narrowing of the large artery leading from the heart

coarctation of the aorta

158

a duct bw the aorta and pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open

patent ductus arteriosus

159

lesions that form on heart valves after damage by infection

vegetations

160

clots that travel to and suddenly block a blood vessel

emboli

161

small, pinpoint hemorrhages

petechiae

162

an extra heart sound, heard bw normal beats and caused by a valvular defect or concition that disrupts the smooth flow of blood through the heart

murmur

163

listening with a stethoscope

ascultation

164

heart disease caused by rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart disease

165

local widening of an artery

aneurysm

166

pain, tension, and weakness in a limb after walking has begun

claudication

167

blockage of arteries in the lower extremities; etiology is atherosclerosis

peripheral arterial disease

168

pertaining to the heart

coronary

169

not a normal heart rhythm

arrhythmia

170

abnormal condition of blueness

cyanosis

171

chest pain

angina pectoris

172

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

173

hardening of the arteries with a fatty plaque

atherosclerosis

174

swollen veins in the rectal region

hemorroids

175

Bill was having pain in his chest tat radiated up his necka nd down his arm. He called his family physician, who thought Bill should report to the local emergency room immediately. The first test performed in the ER was a/an (stress test, ECG, CABG)

ECG

176

Dr. Kelly explained to the family that their observation of the bluish color of the baby Charles' skin helped her make the diagnosis of a/an (thrombotic, aneurysmal, septal) defect in the baby's heart, which needed immediate attention.

septal

177

Dr. Duggan had a dever of unknown origin. When the doctors completed an echocardiogram and saw vegetations in his mitral valve, they suspected (bacterial endocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, angina)

bacterial endocarditis

178

Claudia's hands turned red, almost purple, whenever she want out into the cold or became stressed. Her physical thought it might be wise to evaluate her for (varicose veins, Raynaud's disease, intermittent claudication)

Raynaud's disease

179

Daisy's heart felt like it was skipping beats every time she drank coffee. Her physician suggested that she wear a/an (Holter monitor, LVAD, CABG)

Holter monitor

180

Paola's father and grandfather died of heart attacks. Her physician tells her that she has inherited a tendency to accumulate fats in her bloodstream. Blood tests reveal high levels of (enzymes, lipids, nitroglycerin). Discussing her family history with her (gynocologist, hematologist, cardiologist), she understands that she has familial (hypocholerolstemia, hypercholerolstemia, cardiomyopathy)

lipids, cardiologist, hypercholesterolemia

181

While exercising, Bernard experienced a pain (cramp) in his calf muscle. The pain disappeared when we was resting. After performing (Holter monitoring, Doppler ultrasound, echocardiography) on his leg to assess blood flow, Dr. Shaw found (stenosis, fibrillation, endocarditis), indicating poor circulation. She recommended a daily exercise program, low-far diet, carful foot care, and antiplatelet drug therapy to treat Bernards intermittent (palpitations, hypertension, claudication)

Doppler ultrasound, stenosis, claudication

182

Carol notices that her 6-week old son Louis had a slightly bluish or (jaundices, cyanotic, diastolic) coloration to his skin. She consulted a pediatric (dermatologist, hematologist, cardiologist), who performed (echocardiography, PET scan, endarterectomy) and diagnosed Louis's condition as (endocarditis, congestive heart failure, tetrology of Fallot)

cyanotic, cardiologist, echocardiography, tetrology of fallot

183

78 year old John smith has had coronary artery disease and high bp for the past 10 years. His history included an acute heart attack, or (MI, PDA, CABG). He often was tired and complained of (dyspnea, nausea, migraines) and swelling in his ankles. His physician diagnosed his condition as (aortic aneurysm, congestive heart failure, congenital heart disease) and recommended restricted salt intake, diuretics, and an (ACE inhibitor, antibiotic, analgesic)

MI, dyspnea, congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor

184

Sarah had a routine checkup that included (auscultation, vasoconstriction, vasodilation) of her chest with a (catheter, stent, stethoscope) to listen to her heart. Her physician noticed a midsystolic murmur characteristic of (DVT, MVP, LDL). An echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis.

auscultation, stethoscope, MVP

185

adenoid/o

adenoids

186

alveol/o

alveolus , air sac

187

bronch/o, bronchi/o

bronchial tube, bronchus

188

bronchiol/o

bronchiole, small bronchus

189

capn/o

carbon dioxide

190

bronchopleural

pertaining to the bronchus and the pleura

191

coni/o

dust

192

epiglott/o

epiglottis

193

laryng/o

larynx, voice box

194

lob/o

lobe of the lung

195

mediastin/o

mediastinum

196

nas/o

nose
*also rhin/o

197

orth/o

straight, upright

198

intubation

inserting a tube

199

orthopnea

breathing straight
-breathing is easier in the upright position

200

ox/o

oxygen

201

ex-

out/away

202

pector/o

chest
*also thorac/o

203

pharyng/o

pharynx, throat

204

phon/o

voice

205

dysphonia

pertaining to abnormal voice

206

phren/o

diaphragm

207

pleur/o

pleura

208

-dynia

pain

209

effusion

escape of fluid

210

pneum/o, pneumon/o

air, lung

211

pulmon/o

lung

212

rhin/o

nose
*also nas/o

213

sinus/o

sinus, cavity

214

spir/o

breathing

215

expiration

process of breathing out
(*S is omitted becasue of X)

216

rhinorrhea

flow of the nose

217

tel/o

complete

218

thorac/o

chest
*also pector/o

219

tonsill/o

tonsils

220

-ectasis

expansion

221

atelectasis

incomplete expansion

222

trache/o

trachea, windpipe

223

-ema

condition

224

em-

in

225

-osmia

smell

226

-pnea

breathing

227

dyspnea

abnormal breathing

228

-ptysis

spitting

229

-sphyxia

pulse

230

asphyxia

no pulse

231

-thorax

pleural cavity, chest

232

auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

233

percussion

tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure

234

pleural rub

Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other
-this is due to inflammation

235

rales (crackles)

Fine crackling sounds hears on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli

236

rhonchi (singular: rhonchus)

Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum
-sounds resemble snoring and usually caused by secretions in larger bronchial tubes

237

sputum

Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting.

238

stridor

Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
-caused by throat abscess, airway injury, croup, allergic rxn, laryngitis

239

wheezes

Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing.
-asthmatics commonly experience this

240

croup

Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor.

241

diphtheria

Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium.
-inflammation occurs, and leather membrane forms in pharynx and trachea

242

epistaxis

Nosebleed

243

pertussis

Whooping cough: highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis

244

asthma

chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production.

245

bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection

246

chronic bronchitis

inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of COPD

247

cystic fibrosis (CF)

Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally

248

atelectasis

Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli

249

emphysema

Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
-form of COPD

250

What are 2 forms of COPD

emphysema and chronic bronchitis

251

Lung cancer
-What are the 2 categories?

Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and the bronchi
-small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC)

252

pneumoconiosis
What kinds?

Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
-There are various forms according to the type of dust particle
anthracosis- coal
asbestosis - asbestos
silicosis- silica

253

pneumonia

Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fills with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction

254

pulmonary abscess

Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs

255

pulmonary edema

Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles

256

pulmonary embolism (PE)

Clot or material lodges in vessel of the lung

257

sarcoidosis

chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.

258

granulomas

small nodules

259

tuberculosis (TB)

Infectious disease where lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
-bacteria invade lungs

260

pleural effusion

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)

261

pleurodesis

the artificial production of adhesions bw the parietal and visceral pleura for treatment of persistent pneumothorax

262

-desis

to bind

263

chest x-ray (CXR)

radiographic image of the thoracic cavity

264

computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest

computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structure in cross section and other planes
-identify things difficult to see by x-ray

265

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest

magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional planes
-helpful in defining mediastinal tumors difficult to assess by CT

266

positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung

Radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs
- this can identify malignant tumors which have higher metabolic activity

267

ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan

detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope in inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon)
-identifies areas of the lung no receiving adequate air flow (ventilation) or blood flow (perfusion)

268

bronchoscopy

fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes

269

endotracheal intubation

placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway

270

lung biopsy

removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination

271

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

Tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs; airway function, lung volume, and the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.

272

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

273

ABGs

arterial blood gases

274

AFB

acid-fast bacillus
-type of organism that causes tuburculosis

275

ARDs

acute respiratory distress syndrome

276

BAL

bronchoalveolar lavage

277

Bronch

bronchoscopy

278

CF

cystic fibrosis

279

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

280

C&S

culture and sensitivity testing

281

CXR

chest x-ray

282

DOE

dyspnea on exertion

283

DPT

diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
-toxiods for vaccination of infants

284

ICU

intensive care unit

285

LLL

left lower lobe (of lung)

286

LUL

left upper lobe (of lung)

287

NSCLC

non-small cell lung cancer

288

PCP

pneumocystis pneumonia
-type of pneumonia seen in AIDS patients

289

PE

pulmonary embolism

290

PFTs

pulmonary function tests

291

PPD

purified protein derivative

292

RDS

respiratory distress sundrome

293

RLL

right lower lobe

294

RUL

right upper lobe

295

SOB

shortness of breath

296

TLC

total lung capacity

297

URI

upper respiratory infection

298

VATS

video-assisted thoracic surgery

299

V/Q scan

ventilation-perfusion scan

300

RML

right middle lung

301

bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of a bronchus

302

pneumothorax

air in the chest (pleural cavity)

303

anosmia

lack of smell

304

laryngectomy

process of removing the voice box

305

glottis

opening to the larynx

306

excessive carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercapnia

307

breathing is easier or possible only in an upright position

orthopnea

308

difficulty breathing

dyspnea

309

spitting up blood

hemoptysis

310

deficiency in oxygen

hypoxia

311

condition of pus in the pleural cavity
-2 anwers

pyothorax
empyrema

312

hoarseness; voice impairment

dysphonia

313

blood in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

314

nosebleed

epistaxis

315

acute infectious disease of the throat caused by Corynebacterium

diphtheria

316

acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants that is marked by obstruction of the larynx and stridor

croup

317

hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls

emphysema

318

inflammation of tubes that lead from the trachea, over a long period of time

chronic bronchitis

319

chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by airway obstruction

asthma

320

lung or portion of a lung is collapsed

atelectasis

321

malignant neoplasm originating in a lung or bronchus

lung cancer

322

whooping cough (another word)

pertussis

323

a collection of fluid or other material within the lung as see on chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic study

infiltrate

324

inherited disease of exocrine glands; mucous secretions lead to airway obstruction

cystic fibrosis

325

inflammatory disease in which small nodules form in lungs and lymph nodes

sarcoidosis

326

This symptom means that a patient has difficulty breathing and becomes short of breath when exercising

dyspnea on exertion (DOE)

327

Visual examination of the chest via endoscope and video monitor

video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)

328

3 basic steps:
1- airway opened by tilting the head
2- breathing restored by mouth-to-mouth
3-circulation restored by external cardiac compression

CPR

329

Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are examples

NSCLC

330

A group of symptons resulting in acute respiratory failure

acute (adult) respiratory distress (ARDS)

331

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are examples

COPD

332

A spirometer is used for these respiratory tests

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

333

substance used in a test for tuberculosis

purified protein derivative (PPD)

334

Injection in an infant to provide immunity

diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT)

335

removal of lymph tissue in the oropharynx

tonsillectomy

336

surgical puncture of the chest to remove fluid from the pleural space

thoracentesis

337

incision of the chest

thoracotomy

338

removal of the voice box

laryngectomy

339

removal of a region of the lung

lobectomy

340

endoscopic examination of the chest

thoracoscopy or thorascopy

341

pulmonary resection

pneumectomy

342

Before making a decision to perform surgery on Mrs. Hope, an 80 year old woman with lung cancer, her physicians ordered (COPD, bronchoscopy, PFTs) to determine the functioning of her lungs.

PFTs

343

Early in her pregnancy, Sonya had a routine (PET scan, CXR, MRI) that revealed a/an (epiglottic, alveolar, mediastinal) mass in the area bw her lungs. After delivery of her child, the mass was removed, and biopsy revealed a malignant thymoma.

CXR, mediastinal

344

5 year old Seth was allergic to cats and experienced wheezing, coughing, and difficult breathing at night when he was trying to sleep. After careful evaluation by a (cardiologist, pulmonologist, neurologist) his parents were told that Seth had (pleurisy, sarcoidosis, asthma) involving inflammation of his (nasal passages, pharynx, bronchial tubes)

pulmonologist, asthma, bronchial tubes

345

6 year old Daisy had a habit of picking her nose. During the winter months, heat in her family's house cause drying of her nasal (mucus, mucous, pleural) membranes. She had frequent bouts of (epistaxis, croup, stridor)

mucous, epistaxis

346

75 year old Beatrice had been a pack-a-day smoker all of her adult life. Over the previous 3 months she noticed a persistent cough, weight loss, blood in her sputum (hemoptysis, hematemesis, asbestosis), and dyspnea. A chest CT scan revealed a mass. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of (tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, adenocarcinoma) which is a type of (small cell, non-small cell, lymph node) lung cancer.

hemoptysis, adenocarcinoma, non-small cell

347

Carrie's lungs were normal at birth, but thick bronchial secretions soon blocker her (arterioles, venules, bronchioles), which became inflamed. She was losing weight, and tests revealed inadequate amounts of pancreatic enzymes necessary for digestion of fats and proteins. Her pediatrician diagnosed her hereditary condition as (chronic bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis)

bronchioles, cystic fibrosis