Flashcards in Chron's/Ulcerative Colitis FE Deck (21):
What is Chron's Disease?
A chronic, transmural, incurable inflammatory autoimmune disease of the bowel that can occur anywhere in the GI but usually occurs in the ileum. It can occur in the entire thickness of the bowel wall, and all layers of the submucosa
What can Chron's lead to?
1. It often leads to fibrosis and obstruction of the bowels
2. Deep fissures can develop, leading to fistulas and abscesses
3. Altered nutrition, d/t malabsorption and scarring
4. "Skip" lesions can lead to healthy tissues between lesions "cobblestoning"
What are four risk factors of Chron's Disease?
2. Dietary (refined sugars, sat fat, meat)
3. Genetic (hereditary, female, 20s, caucasian)
4. Altered immune system, gut microflora
What are 5 s/sx of Chron's Disease?
1. Episodes of diarrhea and abd. pain
2. Steattorhea (fat in stool)
3. Anorexia, N, V
4. Malabsorption (>>weight loss, anemia, fatigue)
5. May have rectal bleeding
Is Chron's constantly showing s/sx in people who have it?
No, they can have remissions, exacerbations, and systemic problems (arthritis, skin conditions, etc)
What are some things we can teach patients who have Chron's?
To look for things that exacerbate their Crohn's, and to try to avoid those things.
What is Ulcerative Colitis?
An inflammatory autoimmune disease of the colon, with unknown cause
What type of auto bodies are found in UC patients?
Antibodies against intestinal epithelial cells
What part of the body is affected by UC?
The mucosal surfaces of the colon--altered gut flora is often found here.
Ulcerative colitis lesions look like what?
A continuous lesion
Can Ulcerative colitis patients have pseduopolyps?
Yes (projecting masses of scar tissue that occur during the healing of ulcers)
What are four things that can might cause UC?
2. Milk consumption
4. Genetic factors
What are 4 s/sx of UC?
1. 4-20 stools/day with pus, blood
2. Abdominal cramping
3. Involuntary leakage of stool
4. Can lose weight with severe disease (fluid loss can be 500-2000mL/day)
Is UC continuous?
No, it can have remissions, exacerbations
What are five Dx tests for Chron's and UC?
1. Colonoscopy--can diff. between Chron's and Colitis
2. Biopsy of inflamed and normal tissue
3. CT, MRI
4. Labs (CBC)
5. Stool occult blood, culture
What is a capsule endoscopy?
A "pill" that patients swallow and that emits light and takes thousands of pictures of the GI tract. It can be used with Crohns and UC.
What are three ways to treat Chron's/Colitis through nutrition?
1. Enteral, parenteral or vitamins
2. Manage weight loss and dehydration in Colitis
3. May need to make dietary changes
What is a surgery option for Chron's/Colitis pts?
Possible ostomy--may need to make lifestyle changes--pts might want to join a support group.
What 9 types of medications might Chron's and Colitis patients be given?
1. Anti-inflammatory drugs (sulfasalazine)
2. Immune suppressors
3. Steroids (esp during exacerbations)
5. Anti-diarrheal agents
7. Pain relievers
9. Correct anemia or fluid volume deficit if necessary
What are 5 nursing implications for pts with Chron's or Colitis?
1. Bowel rest--may need NPO
2. Control inflammation, infection, nutrition
3. Teach to avoid triggers and alleviate stress
4. Provide symptom relief
5. Improve quality of life