Chronic Inflammation 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronic Inflammation 2 Deck (26):
1

What causes granulomata Inflammation

indigestible antigens causing a granulomas build up in tissue and organs
Also can be due to type IV hypersensitivity

2

What is granulomas

epithelioid macrophages in tissue

3

What is a giant cells and what is its structure

Macrophages fused together
Large cytoplasm and multiple nuclei

4

What are four examples of different types of giant cells

Langhans - tuberculosis
In the presence of a Foreign body
Leaked silicon implants
Warthin–Finkeldey cell - early case measles

5

What is idiopathic disease

Diseases that we don't know how they happened

6

What may granulomas contain

Giant cells

7

What may surround granulomas

Lymphocytes and Dead tissue

8

Name some Infectious Granulomas diseases

Tuberculosis
Leprosy
Syphilis

9

What is caseous necrosis and what surrounds it

Dead tissue
macrophages, giant cells, lymphocytes

10

Name some noninfectious Granulomas diseases

Rheumatoid disease - autoimmune pain at joints

Sarcoidosis - small patches of red and swollen tissue usually present lungs or skin

Chrons disease - inflammation of the intestine

11

What conditions favour wound healing

cleanliness
apposition of edges (no haematoma)
sound nutrition
metabolic stability and normality
normal inflammatory and coagulation mechanisms
note local mediators

12

Define an ulcer and ulceration

an open sore on the skin surface
eroding on the skin by an ulcer

13

What are the stages of wound healing

phase of acute inflammation
local angiogenesis – new vessels grow
granulation tissue formation
fibrosis and scar formation

14

How else can wounds heal

Surgically

15

How are small defects surgically healed

by primary intention

16

What is the outcome of primary intention

Minimal gap
Small amount of granulation tissue
Small (near invisible) linear scar

17

How are large defects surgically healed

by secondary intention

18

What are the outcomes of secondary intention

Greater granulation tissue growth
Contraction of skin to bring together
Forming greater and more visible scar

19

What are the sequence of events in scaring

Injury,
Blood clot formed by platelets
Acute inflammation
Granulation tissue growth
Phagocytosis of fibrin
Fibroblasts lay down collagen
Contraction of scar as skin pulled together
re-epithelialisation

20

What is angiogenesis

New vessel formation
enabling blood supply to enter damaged tissue

21

What impairs wound healing

dirty, gaping wound, large haematoma
poorly nourished, lack of vitamins C, A
abnormal CHO metabolism, diabetes, corticosteroid therapy
inhibition of angiogenesis

22

What is the difference between fracture healing and normal healing

Granulation tissue contains OSTEOBLASTS as well as fibroblasts

23

What is formed formed originally in bone healing in a fracture

Fibrous tissue called Callus

24

What happens in callus formation

Osteoblasts randomly throw down fibrous tissue called callus, then angiogenesis occurs allowing reformation and trabecular and cortical bone replace callus

25

What stimulated proliferation of vessels

Vascular endothelial growth factor released by hypoxic cells

26

What is the difference between granulomas inflammation compared to other chronic inflammations

Is response to to antigen from an infectious pathogen, foreign body or unknown that is resistant to neutrophils,as the "first responder"

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