Chronic Kidney Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Chronic Kidney Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic Kidney Disease Deck (20):
1

What is the definition of chronic kidney disease?

Progressive decline in GFR with a duration of at least 3 months with OR without albuminuria

2

What is the most common population for CKD?

African Americans

3

What are the two major disease causes of CKD?

HTN and diabetes

4

What is CKD a major risk factor for?

CVD

5

Why do so few patients actually need RRT?

Most will die of CVD before ESRD

6

What stage of CKD is the most commonly seen in the US?

Stage III

7

What is the most common cause of CKD in the US?

Diabetes

8

What is the pathogenesis of CKD from diabetes?

• Angiopathy of glomerular capillaries
• Diffuse glomerulosclerosis
• Nephrotic range proteinuria
- Uncontrolled blood glucose is a major risk factor

9

What is the pathogenesis of CKD from HTN?

Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis
• Hyaline ateriolosclerosis of small arteries and arterioles
of kidney
• Resulting ischemia leads to chronic tubulointerstitial and
glomerular damage

10

What are some glomerular diseases that can lead to CKD?

• IgA nephropathy
• Post-infectious glomerulonephritis
• Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
• Lupus nephritis
• Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

11

Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis Common Findings

High ASO titre, low serum complement usual findings

12

MPGN Pathogenesis

• Caused by deposits in the GBM and the mesangium
• Complement activation leads to glomerular destruction

13

What is the most common stage of lupus nephritis?

Stage IV is most common and most severe

14

What are the clinical sequelae of lupus nephritis?

• HTN, hematuria, proteinuria/nephrosis
• Progressive CKD, thrombophilia

15

Who is the main patient population of membranous nephropathy?

Caucasians

16

What are some common presentations of amyloidosis?

- Enlarged tongue
- Heart failure
- CKD

17

Cholesterol Atheroembolic Disease Pathogenesis

Occurs when cholesterol is released from an atheromatous plaque into the bloodstream and it usually happens after vascular surgery or intervention

18

What is a major sign of cholesterol atheroembolic disease?

Livedo Reticularis Rash

19

What are the goals of Stage IV CKD management?

- HTN Control
- Proteinuria Reduction
- Manage Bone Disorders - Hyperparathyroidism (serum PTH is increased)
- Manage Anemia

20

What are the sequelae of ESRD?

• Uremic cardiovascular disease
• Medial vascular calcification
• Arterial stiffness
• LV hypertrophy
• Higher risk of cardiac arrest and heart failure

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