Flashcards in Chronic Pain Deck (42):
is pain a normal part of growing old?
is pain more common as you get older
if it is chronic pain how should it be dosed?
by the clock so pain is more steady
are most patients under or over treated for pain?
what are manifestations of pain
what drug shouldn't be used due to ataxia, dizziness, increased risk for falls
what drug shouldn't be used due to tremor, myoclonus, seizures
if you are using COX 2 + aspirin or NSAID what else should they recieve
Should you begin treating pain with the lowest level on the analgesic ladder then slowly work your way up to opioids?
No, The initial choice of agents is based on the characteristics of the pain, the pain intensity, and the individual patient
0-3 on pain scale is ____ pain
7-10 on pain scale is ____ pain
4-6 on pain scale is ____ pain
What pain drug should be prescribed with opioid analgesia to ensure a combination with maximum efficacy?
Acetaminophen and NSAID
Non pharm treatment of pain
Physical activity and exercise
Heat, ice, stretching, massage, US, acupuncture
When do you choose acetaminophen for pain?
mild to moderate pain
MSS (OA, LBP)
What should you use if you are taking NSAIDs for GI protection?
PPI or misoprostol
Side Effects of Opiod
What 2 opiods should you not use for pain?
propoxyphene (increases risk of falls, dizziness, sedation, drowsiness, confusion, constipation)
meperidine (tremors, myoclonus, delirium, seizures)
Stage of OA? Fibrillation and erosion of the cartilage surface develop, with subsequent release of proteoglycan and collagen fragments into the synovial fluid
Stage of OA? Proteolytic breakdown of the cartilage matrix occurs
Stage of OA? Breakdown products of cartilage induce a chronic inflammatory response in the synovium, which in turn contributes to further cartilage breakdown
For OA: Stiffness during _____ (gelling) may develop, with morning joint stiffness usually lasting for less than _____
rest; 30 minutes
Does OA have erythema or warmth over affected joints?
What joints does OA affect?
DIP, but also PIP and joints at base of thumb
Pain >3 months
Low energy level
2 types of nociceptive pain
arising from skin, bone, joint, muscle, CT. It is described as well localize, constant, throbbing, aching, stabbing. Nociceptors are the pain receptors. (ex: arthritis, bone mets, fracture, acute post-op).
arises from viscera of internal organs (large intestines and the pancreas, renal colic, bowel obs) abnormal processing of sensory input by the peripheral or central nervous system. Poorly localized, diffuse, referred pain, dull, colicky, deep. Associated with N/V, diaphoresis.
PNS or CNS cause. Burning, tingling, shock-like, shooting, prickling, squeezing, abnormal DTRs, impaired motor function, paresthesias. (cervical or lumbar radiculopathy, postherpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, post-stroke syndrome, herniated intervertebral disc)
Source of pain is not understood, widespread MSS pain, stiffness, weakness. Myofascial pain syndrome, somatoform pain disorders.
Somatization and hysterical reactions
What is the PAINAD?
Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia
What is the procedure of PAINAD?
Observe 3-5 min with movement (bathing, turning, transferring).
-For each item select the score (0, 1, 2) that reflects the current state of the behavior.
-Add the scores. Total scores range from 0 to 10 (0= “no pain” to 10= “severe pain”).
Always compare the score to a previous score. An increased score suggests pain is increased, while a lower score suggests pain is decreased.
What are the 5 types of scoring for PAINAD?
What are treatments for neuropathic pain?
antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, topical anesthetics
What are treatments for undetermined pain?
antidepressants, anti-anxiety, psychological therapy.
Risk Factors of OA
Age- strongest risk factor
Lack of osteoporosis
Genetic elements (COL2A1 mutation)
What is hallmark of OA?
OA stiffness in affected joints for ___ minutes
<30; gelling phenomenon (resolves with motion, recurs with rest)
What are the 2 types of nodes of OA?
Bouchard's nodes (PIP)
Heberden nodes (DIP)
What is the clinical choice to diagnose OA?