Flashcards in Church History from Hildebrand Deck (110)
Who were the three great Popes of the Middle Ages, men of moral as well as intellectual strength?
Gregory VII, Alexander III, and Innocent III
What order of monks did Hildebrand belong to, and where?
Benedictine order at the convent of St. Mary’s in Rome
During the low point of the papacy in A. D. 1046, which was the only legitimate pope in the eyes of Hildebrand?
What was Hildebrand’s occupation until he became pope in 1073?
Who was the second consequential Hildebrandian pope?
What major changes took place under Pope Nicolas II?
1) By an act of a Lateran Council, cardinals began to elect the popes, rather than the Emperor
2) Nicolas II made an alliance with the Normans of southern Italy (the house of Hauteville) for temporal protection of the papacy
When did Nicolas II reign as pope?
Which two heresies were proscribed by the Lateran Council of 1059?
Simony and concubinage of the clergy
Who was Peter Damiani?
Severe monk and aid to Hildebrand in combatting heresies
When did Peter Damiani die?
A. D. 1072
What caused Hildebrand to support William of Normandy in his claim for the crown of England in 1066?
The Normans repelled the Muslims from southern Italy, winning southern Italy and Sicily for the Church
When was Alexander II pope?
When did the incident at Canossa happen?
Where is Canossa?
Northern Italy, east of Genoa
What is the date of Thomas a Becket’s murder?
December 29, 1170
What mountain range separates Spain from the rest of Europe?
What happened when Gregory VII succeeded in rooting out marriage among the clergy?
Widespread concubinage and licentiousness took the place of marriage among the clergy
Under which figure did the feudal system in Europe begin?
In feudalism, what were the obligations of lords and vassals?
Lords were obligated to protect their vassals and vassals were obligated to serve their lords
In the time of Gregory VII, what power did the secular lords have over the Church?
During the time of Gregory VII, what did the bishops have to do when invested by lords?
They had to swear on oath of obedience
What did an oath of obedience imply regarding a bishop to his lord?
• furnishing troops for battle
• having to fight, themselves
• serving at court
What was a common practice of kings and princes when a bishop died, during the time of
They waited before appointing a new bishop for the purpose of using the income of the see during the vacancy
How would a king decide who to appoint to an ecclesiastical office during the Middle Ages?
He gave the office to whoever would pay the most money for it (simony)
During the Middle Ages, what was the proper role of princes regarding the Church?
They were to defend the Church (not to be its lords and rulers)
True or false: beginning with the rise of Hildebrand, the Church and papacy went from its lowest state of weakness and corruption to it highest power over the European nations?
True (Schaff, vol 5, 3)
What did scholastic philosophy attempt to do?
Solve all conceivable problems and prove every article of faith using dialectical skill
In what style of architecture were the cathedrals conceived?
Norman and gothic
True or false: during the Middle Ages, all the arts were made the handmaids of religion?