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Flashcards in CIRCUL-L-L-L-ATION Deck (89):

How much blood does an adult have?

Male 5-6L
Female 4-5L Pregos have extra litre


Blood makes up how much body weight?



What can affect the concentration of red blood cells?

Drops to normal 2 or 3 weeks after birth
Lower in late afternoon
May increase in winter
May increase with lower atmospheric pressure


How is blood produced in fetuses?

RBC Appear at 2 months and made in thymus, spleen, and liver until 5 months
WBC after 5 months


What is fibrin foam?

Whisk up freshly shed blood vigorously with a glass rod which can be removed and used in brain surgery


How does temperature affect clotting?

Rapid cooling below zero centigrade halts the clotting process


What are some natural anticoagulants?

Sweet clover containing Dicumaro, the saliva of leeches, blood sucking insects, venom of poisonous snakes


What is thrombosis?

Anything which slows the rate of blood flow or damages the smooth lining of blood vessels encourages clotting. Pregos have 30% more fibrin and bed confinement can contribute


Why is CO a problem?

Hemoglobin combines with CO 250 times more readily than O. The resulting compound, carboxyhaemoglobin is more stable than oxyhaemoglobin and cannot transport oxygen. Then you die


What gives bruises their colours?

The breakdown products of hemoglobin


What is the process by which white blood cells build up?



How long does it take for blood to clot?

3-6 minutes. Within 24 hours the clot shrinks to about 40% of its size and becomes more adherents.


What can affect platelet formation?

All drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid for about 3 days


How are platelets obtained?

Differential centrifugation. It is put into bags and is called Platelet Rich Plasma and can be concentrated further into Platelet Concentrate.


What is the basic breakdown of blood?

55% Plasma
44% Red blood cells
~1% White
>1% Platelets


What is the breakdown of plasma?

92% water
8% dissolved substances, 7% protein 1% other


What are the specific things in plasma and their functions?

Organic substances: Glucose, amino acids, vitamins, ammonia, urea
Inorganic substances: Na, K, Cl, HCO3
Dissolved gasses: O2, CO2
Regulatory proteins: Hormones, enzymes
Fibrinogen: Clotting
Serum albumin: Helps maintain fluid balance between the plasma, cells, and interstitial fluid by osmosis, helps maintain blood volume and pressure
Serum globulin: antibodies
-help regulate nerve and muscle function


What are the name for red blood cells?



How many RBCs are there?

5 millions per micrometer of blood


What is the specialization of the RBC?

-no nucleus or organelles (dissolved)
-advantages: Increased surface area for gas exchange
-volume for hemoglobin with iron to carry O2


What is the production of the RBC?

-produced in connective tissue of red bone marrow from stem cells
-survive 90-120 days
-excess stored in the spleen


What is the destruction of the RBC?

-appx. 7 mill/second in the liver and spleen
-iron returned to bone marrow


What is the other name for white blood cells?



What are non-granular WBC?

-round nucleus, no granules
-live 200 days to lifetime
-produced in red bone marrow and modified in lymph glands. ex. thymus, spleen, tonsils, adenoids


How many WBC are there?

8000 / micrometer


What are the types and functions of non-granular WBC?

B-": Produce antibodies to help destroy antigens. Long term defense
T-": Designed to ensure that the body does not initiate an immune response against its own proteins

Monocytes: Develop into macrophages with attempt to destroy antigens by phagocytosis


What are granular WBC and what are their types?

-irregular nuclei
-live hours to days
-produced in red bone marrow
-destroy harmful stuff by phagocytosis



How do WBC travel?

-will travel to site of infection in either circulatory or lymphatic system.
-squeeze through the small opening between the endothelial cells of the capillaries through amoeboid movement


What are changes to the site of infection as a result of WBCs?

Pus: -living and dead WBC
-living and dead bacteria/pathogens
-damaged/dead tissue cells and their contents

Redness: -increased blood flow to region

Swelling: -increase in blood flow
-increased plasma los into the spaces between cells


What is leukemia?

A cancerous disease of blood forming organs. Increased numbers of WBCs fail to mature in the bone marrow. Interferes with productions of RBCs too.
-increased risk of infection
-increase risk of internal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage

Myeloid: Too many faulty WBC
Lymphoid: Cancer of lymphocytes
Acute quick and sudden death, chronic can go undetected for years

Treatment: blood transfusions, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant


What are platelets?

Thrmbocytes, 250 000/ micrometer
-very small, 2 micrometers. (Fragments of a large megakaryocyte and have no nucleus. Live 2-10 days. Help clot.


How do platelets clot the blood?

They are sticky and start patching the hole right away. At the site of wound, damaged tissue releases chemicals that attract platelets and cause them to rupture that react with plasma chemicals to produce an enzyme called thromboplastin.

Prothrombin (inactive) reacts with thromboplastin and calcium to produce thrombin, which reacts with fibrinogen to produce active fibrin


What is hemophilia?

A sex-linked recessive condition where a person lacks one or more clotting factors, slowing the process considerably.


What are the percents of blood types in the population?

46% O
42% A
9% B
3% AB


Draw a chart or picture or something about antigens and antibodies in blood with blood donors and recipients.

see text


What is a glycoprotein?

A protein marker on the outside of a cell. Also called an antigen.


How does mother-fetus incompatibility occur?

Mother Rh-, fetus Rh+. Usually affects the second child. During childbirth when placenta is delivered capillaries of mother and placenta rupture, mixing the blood. This causes the mother to produce Rh antibodies. These are small enough that when present during the second pregnancy they can diffuse into the placenta and start destroying the baby's red blood cells.


How is mother-fetus incompatibility treated?

For baby often massive blood transfusion.
To prevent mother's immune system is suppressed and a serum (Rho-GAM) containing Rh antibodies is given to the mother throughout her pregnancy. This prevents her from making her own.


What are the circulation systems?

Systemic: Throughout body. Oxygen rich blood flows from the left ventricle and goes to the body and returns to the right atrium.
Pulmonary: Oxygen poor blood flows from right ventricle to lungs and returns to left atrium
Cardiac: To the heart. Branches off right at the aorta.


What is the structure of arteries/arterioles?

Fibrous tissue, external elastic layer, smooth muscle, internal elastic layer, endothelium. They are thick and elastic so they can stretch and then return to original size under high pressure. Internal opening known as lumen. More structure than lumen.

Arterioles are smaller and lose layers. Internal elastic, then external, then the rest when they become capillaries.


What is the structure of capillaries?

One endothelial cell thick. Allows O2 and other stuff to diffuse into the tissue. Can only happen efficiently for 2-3 cells so there are tons of capillaries in a capillary bed.


What is the structure of veins?

No elastic layers. Thinner smooth muscle layer. Endothelial cells form valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards under the force of gravity. Carry high volume, low pressure.


What are the main functions of the circulation system?

1. Transports gasses, nutrients, and waste materials transports chemical substances
2. Regulates internal temperature
3. Protects body from blood loss from injury and against disease or toxic substances


What is an open circulatory system?

Vessels open into the body cavity and makes direct contact with the organs and tissues. In invertebrates this mixture of blood and body fluids is called hemolymph. Pushed from heart by muscle into body cavity and it filters back into the heart through tiny holes known as ostia.


What is a closed circulatory system?

Blood is physically contained in vessels and follows a fixed path.


Draw and label a heart.

See text


Location and function Eosinophil

Granular. Mucus lining of digestive system and respiratory. Engulf foreign particles.


Locations and function Basophil

Blood stream. Secrete substances to attract phagocytes


Location and function neutrophil

Body tissue and blood. Engulf foreign particles.


Location and function lymphocyte

Blood stream. Produce antibodies


Location and function monocyte

Blood stream. Produce antibodies before specializing into macrophages,


How does the circulatory system help regulate temperature?

Vasodilation or vasoconstriction to increase or decrease blood flow to surface of skin by dilating or closing certain blood vessels. (Can also be caused by blood pressure or metabolic changes)

Counter current heat exchange. Deep arteries and veins lie adjacent to each other to help regulate the core body temperature.


Label the arteries and veins

see text


What is the cardiac cycle?

Systole: Heart muscle contracted. Produces systolic pressure of 120mmHg
Stage one: Right atrium contracts top to bottom and forces deoxygenated blood through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and vice versa

Stage 2: Immediately following right ventricle contracts from the bottom to top and forces deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. The tricuspid valve prevents back flow of blood into the right atrium and vice versa. (LUBB sound)

Diasole: Hear muscle relaxed. Diastolic pressure 80 mmHg
Right atrium fills with deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. Pulmonary trunk semilunar valve prevents backflow of deoxygenated blood into the right ventricle and vice versa. (dup sound)


What is the function of the chordae tendenae?

Contract to prevent atrioventricular valves from opening in the opposite direction, preventing backflow of blood.


SA node

-specialized patch of tissue in upper wall of right atrium
-capable of initiating nervous system stimulation of heart muscle
-nerve impulse passes over right atrium and left causing them to contract simultaneously top to bottom
-impulse transmitted to atrioventricular node


AV node

-specialized patch of tissue in septum between the atria and ventricles
-picks up nervous impulse of SA node and transmits it towards the ventricles via the bundle of his


Bundle of his

-transmits nervous impulse through the septum towards the ventricles
-slows down nervous signal to allow ventricles to fill with blood from atrial contraction before they contract
-transmits signal to purkinke fibres


Purkinje fibres

-spread out from bundle of his and transmit nervous signal throughout ventricles so ventricles contract from bottom to top


External control of heartbeat is where?

Medulla oblongata (brainstem)


Parasympathetic nervous system

-aka vague nerve
-passes directly from cardio inhibitor centre of the medulla to the SA nod and well as other organs
-is and inhibitory nerve fibre the nerve fiber naturally sends nerve impulses to the SA node to slow down heart rate
-more impulses= slower


Sympathetic nervous system

-passes from the cardio accelerator center of the medulla down the spinal cord and them branches out to the heart.
-is an excitatory nerve fibre the nerve fiber sends nerve impulses to the SA node when there is a need to increase heart rate


How does electrocardiogram relate to cardiac cycle

P wave: SA node fires, signal spreads through atria, begin to contract
Q: Impulse delayed at AV node, ventricles fill
R: Travels down bundle of his and Purkinje fibres, causing ventricles to contract. Valves close
S: Ventricular excitation complete
T: Relexation. Cells repolarize


Draw/ explain the cycle of external control

-sensory receptors in the aortic sinus, carotid sinus and vena cava monitor the amount of stretch of these vessels and thus give and indication of the amount of blood passing through them. Increased blood flow, increased stretch, increased signals. The information is relayed to the medulla (general)

-if the carotid arteries and aorta had a high blood flow it would cause these vessels to be stretched and result in more nerve impulses being sent from the carotid sinus and aortic sinus stretch receptors to the cardio inhibitory center. the cic would then increase the number of inhibitory impulses it would send through the parasympathetic inhibitory nerve to the SA node. The increaed number of signals would cause the SA node to decrease its rate of signal transmission so the heart rate would decrease and less blood would be pumped by the heart. This would relieve the amount of stretch

-if the vena cave had a high blood flow it would be stretched causing the sensory receptor is the vena cava to send more nerve impulses to the cardio accelerator center. The cac would then send more excitatory nerve impulses out through the sympathetic nervous system of the spinal cord to the SA node. The increased number of signals would cause the SA node to increase its rate of signal transmission so the heart rate would increase to increase heart rate. This would allow the heart to pump out the high volume of blood it is receiving through the vena cava.

-low blood flow would have the opposite effect


What are non nervous factors in the blood that can increase heart rate?

-Increase O2, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, adrenaline, thyroxin
-increased arterial temperature
-decreased arterial pH or increased arterial acidity
-opposite directional changes in the above would decrease heart rate


What is a stethoscope?

-used to listen to sounds inside the body
-one end has vibrating membrane aka diaphram
-connected to hollow tube
-vibrations are picked up and amplified


what is stenosis?

Narrowing of the opening in the heart valves or arteries. Can be indicated by a heart murmur


What can cause a heart murmur?

Valve closing incompletely, backflow of blood


what is an electrocardiogram?

Electrodes are placed on the chest to measure small voltage changes of the heart


What is systolic pressure

The maximum pressure during ventricular contraction


What is diastolic pressure

The minimum pressure before the ventricles contract. Although drops to almost zero in ventricles not in arteries so blood keeps flowing to tissues.


How is blood pressure measured?

Sphygmomanometer, aka blood pressure cuff. Temporarily stops blood flow in radial artery. Recorded in millimeters of mercury. Presented as fraction, systolic/diastolic.


What can affect blood pressure?

Increases with exercise, genetics, stress, temperature, diet, medication. Hypertension is high blood pressure for am extended period.


What is cardiac output?

The volume of blood pumped out by the heart in mL/min. Indicator of level of oxygen delivered. Measure of how much work muscles can perform. = heart rate x stroke volume


What is stroke volume?

The volume of blood pumped out by each heartbeat. Determined by how easily heart fills with blood (venus system, stretch of ventricles) and how readily blood is emptied (strength of ventricular contraction, arterial system). Av. 70 ml



-walls of arteries thicken and become less elastic
-treated by lifestyle choices, taking clot-reducing medicines such as Aspirin, taking a clot-busting medication such as urokinase, and surgical treatment, such as angioplasty



-plaque builds up inside artery walls and artery narrows. Blood flow decreased, blood pressure increased
-can lead to blood clots, shortness of breath, heart attack, or heart failure


How is arteriosclerosis treated?

1. Anginoplasty
-tube inserted into clogged artery
-fluorescent dye injected to identify clot
-medications reduces clotting
-tiny balloon inflated to force artery open
-wire mesh stent inserted to hold vessel open
2. Coronary bypass
-re-route blood flow
-take blood vessel from other body part and create a new pathway



A bulge in an artery or heart chamber caused by a weakened area of muscle or wall. Blood pressure causes it to grow larger and risk bursting. Most occur in aorta


General heart valve diseases

-valves may not close completely aka regurgitation
-valve opening may become narrow due to scarring, inhibiting blood flow and causing stenosis
-caused by aging, infections, or disorders
-treated by replacing valves



-irregularity in the speed or rhythm of the heartbeat
-treated with medicine or pacemaker
-pacemaker emits electrical signal only when heartbeat is abnormal
-attatched just under the skin of chest.
-can transmit to different parts


Congenital heart defects

-a heart defect present from birth
-usually indicated by heart murmur, related to structure which can be fixed surgically



Ischemic: Clot in blood vessel blocks flow of blood
Hemorrhagic: Bursting of blood vessel in brain causes blood to leak into brain tissue
-both kill brain cells
-fatal when vital organs are affected


Methods of diagnosing circulatory system disorders

Angiography: liquid dye, Xrays
Echocardiogram: Ultrasound technology. Usually for stroke
Electrocardiogram/ cardiac stress test: Can measure electrical activity, blood pressure, heart rate while exercising
Holter monitor: Wearable recording device for monitoring heart rhythm constantly
Event monitor: Small wrist watch tye that person activates when symptoms occur. Phones in reading to monitoring station
Cardia catheterization. (used in conjuction) Flexible tube (catheter) inserted, dye injected, xrays taken



-blood contains fewer than normal red blood cells
-caused by blood loss or lack of hemoglobin/iron
-dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, cold hands and feet



Transplant of tissues and organs from one species to another
-diseases, rejection. Still controversial


Artificial hearts

-hydrolic pump, +10 L of blood/ minute
-powered by batteries on waist
-transmits power by wireless energy


Medical applications of nanotechnology

-technolgoy that uses microscopic structure on the scale of molecules
-can be used to detect biomarkers for certain diseases
-trageted drug deliver uses enzymes as biomarkers to deliver drugs only to faulty cells, preventing killing of healthy ones
-nanovalve desinged to release only cells with a certain pH


Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical hearts

Advantages: readily available; no need for
immunosuppressive drugs; artifi cial heart restores
hemodynamic stability, raising blood pressure and
helping vital organs recover; persons who are not heart
transplant candidates have prolonged time with family
and friends, and time to enjoy desired activities.
Disadvantages: can wear out or the electrical motor can
fail; infection, and the need to take blood thinners to
prevent clotting. Stroke and bleeding are also possible
complications with the artificial heart; not all patients
have a body size that allows the device to be implanted
into the chest cavity, making small persons unable to
receive the device.