Circulatory System Flashcards Preview

Histology > Circulatory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Circulatory System Deck (78):
0

A series of vessels efferent from the heart that become smaller as they branch into various organs, carry blood to tissues

Arteries

1

Smallest vessels, sites of O2, CO2, nutrient, and waste product exchange between blood and tissues

Capillaries

2

Complex network of thin, anastomosing tubules

Microvasculature or microvascular bed

3

Convergence of venules into a system of larger channels that continue enlarging as they approach the heart

Veins

4

Blood is oxygenated in lungs

Pulmonary circulation

5

Blood brings nutrients and removes wastes in tissues throughout the body

Systemic circulation

6

Thin-walled, closed-ended tubules carrying lymph

Lymphatic capillaries

7

A single layer of squamous epithelium that lined the internal surface of all components of the blood & lymphatic systems

Endothelium

8

3 major layers of the heart

Endocardium
Myocardium
Epicardium

9

A specialized epithelium that acts as a semipermeable barrier between two internal compartments (blood plasma & interstitial tissue fluid)

Endothelium

10

Valves and cords are covered by ____ endothelium

Thrombogenic

11

The heart's pulse conducting system is found in this layer of the heart

Subendocardial layer

12

Thickest layer of the heart

Myocardium

13

Forms the part of the interventricular and interatrial septa

Dense fibrous connective tissue of cardiac skeleton

14

Present in regions close to SA & AV node

Ganglionic nerve cells
Nerve fibers

15

Parasymathetic response of the heart

Slow heart beat (vagal stimulation)

16

Sympathetic response of the heart

Accelerates activity of pacemaker

17

Afferent free nerve endings that register pain are located where?

Between fibers of myocardium

18

It corresponds to the visceral layer of the pericardium (membrane surrounding the heart) where large vessels enter & leave the heart.

Epicardium

19

Structures of the cardiovascular system

Heart
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Lymphatics

20

Functional components of the cvs

Blood vascular system
Lymph vascular system

21

Functions of the cardiovascular system

Transport of O2 & nutrients to tissues
Transport of CO2 & wastes
Temperature regulation
Distribution of molecules (hormones & cells)

22

3 basic components

Endothelium
Smooth muscle
Connective tissue

23

Transverse lines at the ends of the branching fibers

Intercalated discs

24

Muscles

Trabecula carnae
Papillary muscle
Chordae tendinae

25

Modified cardiac muscle

Purkinjie fibers

26

Extensions of ventricular myocardium

Trabeculae canae
Papillary muscle

27

Fibrous cords that attach flaps of atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles

Chordae tendinae

28

These fibers are specialized for impulse conduction rather than contraction & are found in the myocardium

Contractile cardiac muscles

29

Why is there a light area around the nuclei of the conducting cells?

Local accumulation of glycogen

30

Central supporting structure of the heart

Cardiac skeleton

31

Represent junctional complexes between adjacent cardiac monocytes

Intercalated discs

32

3 main junctional specializations within intercalated disc

Fascia adherens/junctions
Desmososmes/macula adherens
Gap junctions

33

Junctional specialization:

Most prominent, anchoring site

Fascia adherens/junctions

34

Junctional specialization:

Responsible for binding of cardiac cells together

Desmosomes/macula adherens

35

Junctional specialization:

Ionic continuity

Gap junction

36

3 main parts of cardiac skeleton

Septum membranaceum
Trigona fibrosa
Annuli fibrosi

37

Part of the cardiac skeleton found in the interventricular septum which functions are for muscle attachments

Septum membranaceum

38

Part of the cardiac skeleton found between atrial foramina and AV canals

Trigona fibrosa

39

Part of the cardiac skeleton which serves as the principal attachment for the cardiac muscle & AV valves

Annuli fibrosi

40

Functions of cardiac skeleton

Anchors & supports heart valves
Firm points of insertion for cardiac muscles
Acts as electrical insulation between atria & ventricles

41

Impulse conduction system

SA node
AV node
Bundle of His
Right & Left branches
Subendocardial network of purkinje fibers

42

Pacemaker of the heart

SA node

43

Impulse conducting system:

Found in the trigonum fibrosum dextrus

Bundle of His

44

Tubular structures that convey blood away & towards the heart

Blood vessels

45

3 common basic structures of blood vessels

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventitia

46

Blood supply of blood vessel (vessel of the vessel)

Vasa vasorum

47

Nerve supply of the blood vessel

Nervi vasorum

48

Vasomotor nerves releasing norepinephrine causing vasoconstriction

Nervi vasorum

49

These cells accumulate lipids with aging

Myointimal cells

50

This is where early changes of atherosclesrosis happens

Subendothelium of bv
(d/t myointimal cells)

51

This membrane separates the T. media from T. adventitia in arteries

External elastic lamina

52

In the artery this separates the tunica intima from the tunica media

Internal elastic lamina

53

Thickest layer in the artery

Tunica media

54

Thickest layer in the vein

Tunica adventitia

55

Tunica intima of veins have folds forming ____ which project toward the lumen

Valves

56

Types of arteries

Large / elastic / conducting
Medium / muscular / distributing
Small ( arterioles, precapillary [metarterioles] )

57

Hardening of arteries

Arteriosclerosis

58

Fibrous deposits (atheroma)

Atherosclerosis

59

Dilatation / weakening of the wall of arteries

Aneurysm

60

This type of artery has a prominent iel & eel

Medium sized arteries : distributing / muscular arteries

61

Most numerous bv of the body, thin walled tubes which branches extensively, smallest & has no smooth muscles

Capillaries

62

2 vessels that dont contain smooth muscles

Capillaries
Capillary venule

63

Contractile cells found in capillaries

Pericytes

64

Types of flow in the microcirculation

Nutritional flow
Non-nutritional flow / shunt flow - metarteriole

65

Types of capillaries

True capillary
Thoroughfare / preferential channels

66

Type of capillary that branch from metarteriole & thoroughfare / preferential channel

Tue capillaries

67

Types of capillaries according to wall structure

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoidal

68

Exchange in continuous capillary

Passive diffusion
Pinocytic vesicles
Intercellular junctions

69

Mass of fenestrated capillaries

Glomerulus

70

Capacitance / reservoir / compliance vessels

Veins

71

3 types of veins

Small veins
Medium sized veins
Large muscular veins

72

Main site of WBC migration into & out of circulation

Post-capillary venules

73

Occlusion & swelling of veins

Thrombophlebitis

74

Wall weakness, valve defects of veins

Varicosities

75

2 types of alternative pathways (veins)

Portal system
A-V shunt

76

2 main vessels of the lymphatic vascular system

Thoracic duct
Right lymphatic duct

77

Lymphaticflow is aided by 2 types of forces

Intrinsic forces
Extrinsic forces