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Flashcards in class #2 Deck (54):
1

comorbidity

the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient

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etiology

cause of a disease

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systole

heart muscles contract

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diastole

heart muscles relax

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diuretic

substance that promotes production of urine

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polydipsia

excessive thirst

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anticoagulant

drug that prevents blood clotting

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HTN risk factors

FHx of HTN, obesity, high sodium diet, smoking, EtOH

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HTN CC

often asymptomatic, measuring at home, headache, chest pain, palpitations, blurred vision, epistaxis

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HTN PE

lower extremity edema, carrots bruit, JVD, abnormal heart sounds

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HTN Dx by

BP check and monitoring with sphygmomanometer

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Hypotensive reading

sys less than 90
did less than 60

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Normal BP reading

sys 90-120
dia 60-80

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prehypertensive reading

sys 121-140
dia81-90

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hypertensive reading

sys greater than 140
did greater than 90

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Dx's caused by HTN

MI/CAD, CHF, CVA, renal failure, impaired vision

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HTN non pharmacological management

BP log, decreased EtOH intake, Low sodium diet, smoking cessation, exercise

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HTN pharmacological management

diuretics, beta-blockers, Ca channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs

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reduce the volume intake of blood vessels by urinating excess fluid? examples?

diuretics, hydrocholorthiazide (HCTZ)

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Slow the heart rate and reduce hearts workload? examples?

Beta-blockers, METROPROLOL: lopressor, toprol ATENOLOL: tenormin

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dilate the arteries and rescue the force of the hearts contractions? examples?

Ca channel blockers, Norvasc (amlodipine), cardizem (dilitiazem)

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relax arteries and block reabsorption of water by kidneys? examples?

ACE inhibitors, Lotensin (benazepril), zestril (lisinopril)

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dilate the arteries? examples?

ARBs, Cozaar (losartan), benicar (olmesartan)

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DM risk factors

obesity, high carb diet, lack of exercise, HTN, HLD, FHx

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DM CC

unusual weight loss or gain, polyuria, polydipsia, blurred vision, fatigue, N/V

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DM PE

distal paraethesias, pedal edema, weight change since last visit

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DM Dx by

fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c

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Dz's caused by DM

Cardiac disease, PVD, Peripheral neuropathy, renal failure, diabetic retinopathy

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DM non pharmacological management

Blood glucose log, weight loss, low-carb-diet, exercise

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injected insulin medications

humalog (short fast acting)
lantus (long acting insulin)
sliding scale (determines insulin based on current glucose)

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DM oral medication

metformin (long acting)
glyburide (induces pancreas)
both taken with meals

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HDL risk factors

obesity, high lipid diet, physical inactivity, FHx, ETOH use

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HDL CC

asymptomatic

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HDL Dx by

blood work measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels elevated LDL

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Dz's caused by HLD

arterial atherosclerosis, CAD/MI, CVA/TIA, pancreatitis

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HDL non pharmacological management

lose weight, close follow up, exercise, decrease ETOH, change diet (avoid cholesterol, high fiber, high omega 3)

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HDL pharmacological management

STATIN : lipitor(atrovastatin), crestor(rosuvastatin), zocor(simvastatin)

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CAD risk factors

HTN, HLD, DM, smoking, FHx <55 y/o

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CAD CC

chest pain or pressure, worse with exertion, improved wit rest or nitroglycerin NTG

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CAD associated medications

ASA, NTG, Anticoagy ulants

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CAD Dx by

cardiac catheterization or stress test

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CAD main concern

MI

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CAD non pharmacological management

control risk factors, weight loss, manage stress and depression, smoking cessation, exercise

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CAD pharmacological management

ASA, NTG

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CAD surgical management (Dx-most invasive )

Dx- cardiac cath
angioplasty - deflated balloon
stent- tubing is inserted and left
CABG- open heart surgery

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Asthma risk factors

FHx, obesity, allergic rhinitis

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Asthma CC

shortness of breath, wheezing

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Asthma PE

wheezes

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Asthma Dx by

peak flow testing

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peak flow measured in

liters/minute

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treatments fo asthma

inhaler (one dose at a time)
nebulizer (continuous aerosol mist)

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asthma pharmacological management inhaled bronchodilators

advair, albuterol, xopenex, atrovent

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asthma pharmacological management inhaled steroids

pulmicort, flovent, symbicort

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asthma pharmacological management oral steriods

prednisone, decadron