class 25 human mating and reproduction IV- disease and death Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in class 25 human mating and reproduction IV- disease and death Deck (32):
1

existence of traits such as homosexuality... doesn't that reduce reproductive output

homosexuality- same sex

2

homosexuality may be a ___ trait

heritable- twin studiess

3

concordance

two individuals share a trait
higher in monozygotic twins than dizygotic

4

requiremnt for the trait to be heritable in order for natural selection to enhance its frequency

supported

5

explanations for existence of homosexuality

mistakes, male bonding, kin selection, sexual anatagonism

6

mistakes

basic sexual selection theory predicts bc male gametes are cheap to produce and male reproductive sucess is generally a function of the number of mates secured- males may be much more likely to engage in copulations than females

not adaptation but is byproduct of relatvely weak selection on males from making mistakes in choosing males

7

male bonding

males use sexual behavior as means of cementing bonds among themselves intimate relationship enhaance mutual defense and make each individual a more effective and reliable colleague

8

kin selection

two alleles at a locus determinig whether an individual reduces its own reproduction in order to spend resources in helping others produce their own offspring- helping v nonhelping

9

inclusive fitness

total fitness- genetic representation- of a genotype is determined by the genetic contribution from producing its own offspring and indirect component of fitness

10

direct component of fitness

own offspring

11

indiret component of fitness

prpoduction of extra offspring of related invidiauls

12

kin selection

fitness payoff through the indirect component of fitness is proposed basis for evolution of such behaviors

13

coefficiento of relatedness

r
probabilty that any two individuals have ame copy of gneebe

14

r * B > C

B- benefit- fitness gain to recipient
C- Cost -fitness loss to altruist

15

sexual antagonism hypothesis

trait increases reproductive output of one sex but decreases reproductive output when found in the other sex would be an example of a seuxally antagonistic trait

16

chlamadiya rates are

increasing, bacteria- generation tiem

17

male expected lifespan

78

18

female expected lifespan

80

19

gonorrhea rates

higher in the south

20

syphillis rates

decrease low rates

21

deaths due to aids graph

western countries, sub saharan africa decrease
central asia/europe/south america decreases

22

characteristics of std

typically disease of adults
tend to cause sterility in host more than mortality - a. sexually transmitted infections are often expressed in sexual organs; host sterility may be of adaptive value to pathogen: failure to concieve, or abortion following conception may lead to increase in frequency of mating
tend to on average cause lower levels of mortality than nonsexually transmitted infections
tend to be crytic w/few over symptoms
tend to persist long term in host
transmission dynamics, epidiology are likely to be fundamentally different from diseasees that have other modes of transmision

23

hiv is a ____

retrovirus

24

what does a retrovirus do

go through RNA before through DNA- infects helper T cells, immunice cells, takes RNA insert viral DNA into gene

25

macrophages

white blood cells look for different stuff - non self genes

26

mhc

major histocompatibility complex
having diversity in mhc lets individaul contend w/variety of agents

27

t shirt experiments

women with dissimlar MHC class found scents of less similar then more attractive genetically
genetic diversity combating parasite infections combating

28

death graph rate of mortality v. age

all causes of mortality are higher in Male

29

homicide

F kill by M they know, M kill by others they don't know high age 20-24

30

sex bias in parasitism v. sexual size dimorphism

increase sexual size dimorphism equals increase sex bias in parasitism
increase testosterone

31

percent survival v. age

based on race- whites live longer usually

32

percent surival v age

female v male

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