class 26 human mating and reprodution iii- sexual orientation teacher notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in class 26 human mating and reprodution iii- sexual orientation teacher notes Deck (23):
1

interspecific

occuring between idnviiduals of two specieis

parasite/pathogen - host relationships
parasite/pathogen benefits while host is harmed
strong sleective force operationg on host populations

coevolution

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two general types of immunity

innate immunity
acquire imunity

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innate immunity

nonsepcific- not in response to particular pathogen- first line, generalized response by immune sys to foregin cells or substances

starts by boy surface preventing foreign mateirals from ivading body

invasion occurs- phagocytes engulf and degrade invading agent by exposure to proeases and oxidizng compounds such as hydrogen peroxide

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phagocytes

in vertebrates these are generally various forms of leukocytes that engulf and degrade invading agent by exposeue to protesases and oxiignzin copmpounds

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luekocytes

whilte blood cells

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oxidizing compounds

hydrogen peroxide

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mast cells

separate from leukocytes
found throughout connective tissues and are rich in granules that sotre histamine and heparin

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inflammatory response

in response to presence of foregin materials/injury, inflammatory response is activated whereby the histamines and other substances are relased by mast cells and act to remove or degrade foregin materials as well as damaged and dead body cells

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fever

increased in body temp in response to infection
innate immune response

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acquired immunity

complex response by immune system triggerd by expose to antigen

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antigen

molecule or other mateiral recognized as nonself that activtes the immune response
macrophages engulf antigen followed by presentation of this antigent to specific types of lymphocyte called helper T cells

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lymphocyte

white blood cells that reside within the lymphatic sstem, part of the body's circulatory system

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helpter T cells

help activate the two components of acquired immunity system
1. humoral response
2. cell mediated response
both responses involve two general classes of cells- effector cells and memory cells

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effector cells

plasma cells and cytotxic t cells- actively erspond to invading agents

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memroy cells

memory B cells and memroy T cells- retian archived response to invading agent in prep for subsequent invasions

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humoral response

mediated through action of B cells which activating production of plasma cells and memroy b cells- reelease antibodies in response to speciic antigen detected, bind directly to particular antigents, leading to inactivation of foregin material

often long term, provide ability of immunite system to respond quickly upon subsequnt infections by same foregin agent- part of immune system activate when vaccines are used

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cell mediated response

so named bc it involves cells- cytoxic T cells
actively kill body cells that are identified as infected with the foreign agent, deteceted by helper T cells
cell mediated response can also remember infectious agents through production of memroy T cells

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memroy T cells

cell mediated response is alos involved in detection and elimination of cancer cells

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major histocomplatibility complex (MHC)

major challenge for immune system is to differentiate between myriad components of individual organism and those of invading agents

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self

individual organism

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invading agents

nonself

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major histocompatibility complex MHC

large ollection of genes over 200 represent about 0.1% of human genome leading to millions of diff types that code for proteins embed within membranes of T cells

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STD

close contact
disease of adults
sterility in hos more often than mortality
expressed in sexual organs
cryptic, few overt symptoms
long term
failure to conevie

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