Class 5, 6: Evolution III and IV - ways of studying evolution - teacher notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Class 5, 6: Evolution III and IV - ways of studying evolution - teacher notes Deck (44):
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ways of studying evolution

fossil record, comparative anatomy, developemental biology, artificial selection, natural seleciton observed in nature, biochemical evidennce, biogeography, phylogenetics

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fossil record

sedimentary rocks record history of planet, indicate relative ages

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types of fossils

impressions (footproints), remains (preserved organic material - leaves), amber preserved material, minerlized fossils (origianl organic material repalced by minerals)

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patterns in fossil record

oldest fossils are simplest, complex ones appear later, older a fossil greater the diff between it and living species

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comparative anatomy includes

homologous, analogous, vestigial, imperfect structures

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homologous strucuters

strucutres shared by group of organisms due to presence of structure in common ancestor , modified for different uses in diff organisms

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comparative anatomy

comparing strucural similariteis and differences of organisms

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analogous strucutres

strucutres with similar form and performing similar functon, similarity not due to common ancestry, similarity is result of convergent evolution

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convergent eolution

similar selective pressures acting on diff, unrelated orgnisms can result in similar solutions

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vestigial structures

structures seemingly non functional

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imperfect structures

features of organisms that accomplish te task but could be better designed demonstrates slection is both ongoing proces and can only work with arising variation

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developmental biology includes

comparative embroyology, homeotic genes

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comparative embroyology

closely related taxa go through similar developmental stages as embroyos retain characteristics reflecting ancestry, ontogency matina detail record of phylogeny but it's not this straightforward

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ontogency

developmental pattern of an individual

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phylogeny

evolutionary history

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homeotic genes

master switch genes are turned on off during development, can greatly affec tthe fate of whole regions of an organism, which affect fate of whole regions of an organism, affecting overall phenotype of individual

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artificial selection

human induced, goal oriented version of natural selection

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natural selection observed in nature

ie galapagos finches

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biochemical evidence

comparison of biomolecules commonly used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among orgnaisms, presence of genetic code is overhwelmig evince of monophyletic nature of life

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monophyletic

presence of single common ancestor

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biogeography

study of past and present distrubtions of organisms

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biogeogrphy includes

archipelagos, oceanic vs mainland islands, global pattersn

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archipelagos

variety among individual islands, affintiy to mainland tax that are geographically nearby

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oceanic vs mainland islands

land masses that are isolated, unieque forms while islands once connected to mainland have organisms exhibit similarty to mainland forms

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global patterns

continental drift - presence of morophloically similar and phylogentically related forms found in diff parts of the globe

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phylogentetics

how do we make senes of both the diversity and unity of life

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phylogency

evolutionary history among a group of taxa

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common ancestry

common ancestor

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character states

beak shape, ie

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broadest to most specifc hiearchal level

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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species

basic evolutionary unit within this system, named using conevtions of binomial nomenclature

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binomial nomenclature

two part naming system used for indetifying species

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kingdom of life order

domain bacteria, domain archea, domain eukarya, kingdom protista, kingdom fungi, kingdom plantae, kingdom animalia

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domain archea

bacteria and archeabacteria are prokaryotic

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prokaryotic

no nucleius, no membrane bound organelles, primarily unicelcular, cell division by binary fission, relativetly small cell size

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domain eukarya

eukarya are eukaryotic

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eukaryotic

membrane bound nucleus, membrane bound organelles, unicelcular, muticecllualr, cell divison by mitosis or meiosis, relatively large cell size

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kingdom protista

mainly unicellular or simple multiceclular - amoeba, algae, slime molds, can be photosyntheitc or hetertrophic

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photosynthetic

algae

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heterotrophic

others

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protist

catch all categroy for eukaryotes not clearly plants, fungi or animals

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kingdom fungi

heterotrphoic, body composed of threadlike hypahe that form a tnagled mass

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kingdom plantae

photosyntheitc, multicellualr

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kingdom animalia

heterotrphic, multicelcllar

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