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Flashcards in Class 7 Deck (36)
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1

Broadbent filter model of selective attention

Much information enters our sensory stores

Some of that information makes it through the selective filter into our working memory

Other information is filtered out and decays

This theory is intended to explain why we are not constantly overwhelmed by all of the stimuli in our environments

2

Treisman attenuation model of selective attention

Some information not attended to can still be detected under the right conditions

Treisman altered broadbents model to account for this fact

Accordingly information not attended to does not decay but rather is turned down to a lower volume. Information from that channel is still process just not as consciously

The cocktail party effect

3

The cocktail party effect

Occurs when you filter out other conversations until your name or something equally salient is mentioned at which point your attention shifts to this other channel

4

What does successful multitasking depend on

Task similarity
Task difficulty
Task practice

5

Schema

A mental framework that allows us to organize our experiences/stimuli and respond to new experiences/stimuli

6

Assimilate schemas

To use our schemas effectively we must constantly assimilate new experiences - new information is interpreted based on our current schemas

7

Accommodate schemas

As we interact with the world we also accommodate our schemas to incorporate new information and experiences

8

What are piagets stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor = 0-2, child experiences the world directly through senses and motor movement

Preoperational = 2-7, child can represent things with words and images but uses intuitive not logical reasoning

Concrete Operational = 7-11, child thinks logically/performs simple mental manipulations with concrete concepts

Formal Operational = 12+, person can reason abstractly, solve hypothetical problems, deduce consequences

9

What is trial and error

Attempting several potential solutions and ruling out those that do not work

10

What is insight

Occurs when we puzzle over a problem and then the complete solution appears to come to us all at once

11

What is heuristic

A mental rule of thumb shortcut or guideline

12

What is an algorithm

A step by step procedure that exhausts all possible options

13

Confirmation bias

This occurs when we seek evidence to support our conclusions or ideas more than we seek evidence that will refute them; this also occurs when we interpret neutral or ambiguous evidence as supporting our beliefs

14

Fixation

Occurs when we have structured a problem in our mind a certain way even if that way is ineffective and are unable to restructure it, we are then unable to see the problem from a fresh perspective

15

Functional fixedness

Is a mental bias that limits our view of how an object can be used based on how that object is traditionally used

16

Mental set

A mental set is our tendency to approach situations in a certain way because that method worked for us in the past

17

Availability heuristic

Occurs when we rely on examples that immediately come to mind when we are trying to make a decision or judgement. By relying on what is just available in our minds rather than doing actual research we can overestimate the probability and likelihood of something happening

18

What is intelligence

Can broadly be viewed as the ability to learn from experience and adapt to the environment

19

What are the theories of intelligence

There is one general intelligence
There are multiple types of intelligences

Social intelligence
- the ability to manage and understand people

Emotional intelligence
- the ability to monitor and discriminate emotions in order to guide thinking and action

20

What are two types of intelligence

Fluid intelligence
- reason abstractly increased processing speed

Crystallized intelligence
- accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

21

What are two mindsets regarding intelligence

Fixed = belief that intelligence and abilities are static

Growth = belief that intelligence and abilities can be developed through effort

22

Representativeness heuristic

Occurs when we estimate the likelihood of an event by comparing it to an existing prototype that already exists in our minds. Our prototype is what we think is the most relevant or typical example of a particular event or object

23

BFs skinners behaviourist theory of language development

Posits that language develops through the associative learning principles of classical and more importantly operant conditioning

24

Noam Chomsky’s Nativist Theory of language development

Proposes that infants are born with the innate ability to use language

Human brains have evolved language acquisition device that is innately capable of understanding the universal grammar common to all human languages

All normally developing humans will automatically learn language when exposed to it during a critical period that ends before puberty

25

Lev Vygotsky’s interactionist theory of language development

Admits some innate ability and biological predispositions but emphasizes social interactions and cognitive development as the most important factors

26

Broca’s area

Inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere associated with language production

Damage to Broca’s area can result in non fluent aphasia with intact comprehension

27

Wernickes area

Posterior superior temporal gyrus associated with understanding written and spoken language

Damage to wenickes area can result in fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension

28

Linguistic determinism

Language determines thought and emotions/feelings and linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories

29

Sapir Whorf Hypothesis

Also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis,

This principle holds that the different structures and vocabulary of different languages strongly affect the thinking of those who use these languages.

Experimental evidence suggests that linguistic differences in categorization can influence the categorical perception of the speakers of those languages

30

Kinesthesis

Aka proprioception allows us to sense the position of our limbs in space as well as detect bodily movements