Classics Chapter 20.5: Trojan War Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classics Chapter 20.5: Trojan War Deck (63):
1

revisit slide 1 -3, 5

awww

2

Who is the Iliad's central hero?

Achilles

3

Greatest piece of Gk lit (according to Gk)

Illiad

4

What is the Illiad NOT about (focus)?

The trojan war - about characters and uan choices

5

How much of the Trojan war does the Iliad cover?

1 month of 10 years

6

Chryses
What does he do?

priest of Apollo
father of Chryseis
Causes Agamemnon's camp to be plagued (by asking Apollo) for revenge

7

What does Agamemnon do to Chryses?

He rudely refuses to give back his prize (from Troy village raid), Chryses' daughter

8

How does the plague on the Greek soldiers go away?

Calchas seer reveals that Chryseis must be returned

Achilles challenges Agamem publicly to give her back so he does

9

hera jealous thetis hephaestus

slide8

10

Briseis

Achilles' war prize
Agamemnon takes her (and this dishonors him) bc achilles made him give up his war prise

11

Why does Thetis go to Zeus?

to ask him to let the Trojans win for awhile
bc her son Achillles stopped fighting for Agamem bc Agamem shamed him

12

Iliad take home message: What does it mean to be mortal?

accept mortality and responsibility for others' lives
most make choices, and life/die as result - which are worth death?

13

Agamemnon's and Achilles' feeling towards war prize quarrels; symbolism

traditional authority vs. individual brilliance

who deserves best prize?
leader of expedition vs. best fighter/hardest worker
how can 1 amazing individ change estab. cult system?

14

When does homer include background to war?

while greeks start loosing

15

Diomedes

esp. strong Greek hero in Troj war

16

How does Agamemnon try to get Achilles back?

sends negotiators with offer =huge list of gifts + Briseis

17

Who does Agamem send to negotiate with Achilles?

Odysseus, Phoinix, and Aias (Ajax)

18

What is Achilles' reaction Agamemnon's offer? What does this show?

refuses- disgusted with values of culture
questions if risking life for glory is worth it (vs. others' heroic code)

Theme: what is worth dying for?

19

2 Fates of Achilles

What does he think?

mom told him
1) glory at Troy + early death
2) go home, long life, unknown

20

Pactroclus

best friend of Achilles

21

deal between Achilles and Pactroclus

asks Achilles to borrow armor to pretend he's A - want Trojans will retreat

doesn't come back as soon as retreat like promised
-> killed by hector (greatest Trojan)

22

What does Achilles htink about his 2 fates? How does he choose btwn 2 fates?


not worth it for agamemnon, but for friends

Indecision causes P death - choose to avenge Patroclus

23

What does Achilles do after Patroclus dies?

he kills so many Trojans that he pisses off the river by clogging it with dead bodies

it attacks him; Trojans retreat

24

How is Achilles saved from the river?

Hephaestus throws fire at it

25

Lykaon

son of Priam
ransomed earlier when caught by Achilles, but killed 2nd time when caught bc Achilles is vengeful

26

Climax of Iliad

Achilles and Hector Combat

27

What does hector do when returns home for a break?

-doesn't rest despite mom's / helen's pleas
- doesnt gve in to Andromache's alternative to fight inside walls (save self for son)

28

Why does Hector fight?

doesn't want to hear Andromache be captured
NOT glory - can't hear if dead

29

Most tender moment in Iliad

Hector removes helmet (bc his son is scared of him with it) and laughts with baby and wife

30

Astyanax =

Hector + Andromache

31

Hector + Achilles battle - what happens?

Hector runs around then stays
Achilles stabs with spear
Achilles refuses when Hector asks for burial
Hectors vows that Achilles will die soon - he knows
Achilles ties hector's body to chariot and drags him around mult times

32

How does Achilles offend the gods? What do the gods do?

He refuses to bury Hector - they stop his body from decay
Hermes leads Priam to Achilles to ask for return of body

33

How does Priam persuade Achlles to give back Hector's body?

made him think about what Achilles' father will feel like when he does

kissed hands of man who killed his children

34

When does Achilles begin to forgive himself for letting Patroclus die?

when he is sitting with Priam

35

Achilles and urns

what does he say?
What does he realize?

Zeus has 2 urns - 1 of blessing and 1 of evil
sometimes he gives both, sometimes the latter only (death)
man must live despite suffering

war brings compassion for suffering of death (even of enemies)

36

What does Achilles give Priam

Hector's body
P says it takes12 days to bury hector, so he gives 12 days of truce

37

true hero of Iliad
why him?

Hector - not achilles bc// dangerous in his excess emotion

38

Poems about fall of troy

NOT BY HOMER
Epic/Homeric Cycle
Virgil's Aeneid- but with Romans as audience

39

Aeneas

only Trojan prince ot survive
founds the roman race

40

Penthesilea

queen of Amazons
help Trojans side

love at first sight with Achilles - he kills her

41

How does Achilles die? According to who?

NOT according to homer

Paris wussily shoots him in heel with arrow

42

Who does Achilles' armor go to? Why?

Odysseus - he gives a better speech than Ajax (best warrior)

43

How does Ajax go crazy?

he doesn't get Achilles armor even if he's the 2nd greatest warrior

44

Where is Achilles' ashes placed? Why?

with Patroclus' bc Patroclus wanted it that way

45

Who writes Ajax?

Sophocles

46

Who does Ajax intend to kill instead of sheep?

Agamemnon, Menelaus, Odysseus

47

Why does Ajax kill himself? How does he do so?

feels humiliated; ashamed for wanting to kill the men

falls on his sword

48

Why does Odysseus disguised as a beggar?

to sneak int o Troy to steal Athena statue to get Athena's support to defeat Trojans

49

Neoptolemus

Achille's son that rights in his place

50

Who kills Paris? With what?

Philoctetes with Herc's bow

51

Where is Philoctetes before at Troy?

Lemnos with odd disease - cured from it

52

How many men can the Trojan horse hold?

50

53

Sinon

man left behind with trojan horse -

54

Who thinks of Trojan horse idea?

Odysseus

55

How does Trojan horse come in?

he escaped from Odysseus, who tried to kill him
tells "secret" - sacred offering to Athena - will secure her protection if taken in city

56

Laocoon

priest of Apollo
doesn't believe Sinon, so shoots arrow in horse
-> 2 sea snakes eat Laocoon and his 2 sons

57

Who murders Priam?

Neoptolemus at altar of zeus in P's palace

vs. Achilles' compassion - written by Romans

58

Who does Neoptolemus kill?

Priam - on altar
Polyxena (youngest daughter) offered on tomb of achilles

59

What happens to Astyanax at fall of troy?

thrown from walls

60

Why is the homecoming of greek heroes ruined?

Ajax the Lesser rapes Cassandra while she clings to Athena's image
she ruins it

61

What happens to Andromache at fall of troy?

taken as slave

62

What happens to Helen at fall of troy?

almost killed by Menelaus in anger
taken back to Sparta

what is this all for?

63

How does Aeneas escape? What is he carrying?

his mom Aphrodite helps him

holts sons' hand, carries father Anchises, who holds gods