Flashcards in Classics Chapter 20.5: Trojan War Deck (63):
revisit slide 1 -3, 5
Who is the Iliad's central hero?
Greatest piece of Gk lit (according to Gk)
What is the Illiad NOT about (focus)?
The trojan war - about characters and uan choices
How much of the Trojan war does the Iliad cover?
1 month of 10 years
What does he do?
priest of Apollo
father of Chryseis
Causes Agamemnon's camp to be plagued (by asking Apollo) for revenge
What does Agamemnon do to Chryses?
He rudely refuses to give back his prize (from Troy village raid), Chryses' daughter
How does the plague on the Greek soldiers go away?
Calchas seer reveals that Chryseis must be returned
Achilles challenges Agamem publicly to give her back so he does
hera jealous thetis hephaestus
Achilles' war prize
Agamemnon takes her (and this dishonors him) bc achilles made him give up his war prise
Why does Thetis go to Zeus?
to ask him to let the Trojans win for awhile
bc her son Achillles stopped fighting for Agamem bc Agamem shamed him
Iliad take home message: What does it mean to be mortal?
accept mortality and responsibility for others' lives
most make choices, and life/die as result - which are worth death?
Agamemnon's and Achilles' feeling towards war prize quarrels; symbolism
traditional authority vs. individual brilliance
who deserves best prize?
leader of expedition vs. best fighter/hardest worker
how can 1 amazing individ change estab. cult system?
When does homer include background to war?
while greeks start loosing
esp. strong Greek hero in Troj war
How does Agamemnon try to get Achilles back?
sends negotiators with offer =huge list of gifts + Briseis
Who does Agamem send to negotiate with Achilles?
Odysseus, Phoinix, and Aias (Ajax)
What is Achilles' reaction Agamemnon's offer? What does this show?
refuses- disgusted with values of culture
questions if risking life for glory is worth it (vs. others' heroic code)
Theme: what is worth dying for?
2 Fates of Achilles
What does he think?
mom told him
1) glory at Troy + early death
2) go home, long life, unknown
best friend of Achilles
deal between Achilles and Pactroclus
asks Achilles to borrow armor to pretend he's A - want Trojans will retreat
doesn't come back as soon as retreat like promised
-> killed by hector (greatest Trojan)
What does Achilles htink about his 2 fates? How does he choose btwn 2 fates?
not worth it for agamemnon, but for friends
Indecision causes P death - choose to avenge Patroclus
What does Achilles do after Patroclus dies?
he kills so many Trojans that he pisses off the river by clogging it with dead bodies
it attacks him; Trojans retreat
How is Achilles saved from the river?
Hephaestus throws fire at it
son of Priam
ransomed earlier when caught by Achilles, but killed 2nd time when caught bc Achilles is vengeful
Climax of Iliad
Achilles and Hector Combat
What does hector do when returns home for a break?
-doesn't rest despite mom's / helen's pleas
- doesnt gve in to Andromache's alternative to fight inside walls (save self for son)
Why does Hector fight?
doesn't want to hear Andromache be captured
NOT glory - can't hear if dead
Most tender moment in Iliad
Hector removes helmet (bc his son is scared of him with it) and laughts with baby and wife
Hector + Andromache
Hector + Achilles battle - what happens?
Hector runs around then stays
Achilles stabs with spear
Achilles refuses when Hector asks for burial
Hectors vows that Achilles will die soon - he knows
Achilles ties hector's body to chariot and drags him around mult times
How does Achilles offend the gods? What do the gods do?
He refuses to bury Hector - they stop his body from decay
Hermes leads Priam to Achilles to ask for return of body
How does Priam persuade Achlles to give back Hector's body?
made him think about what Achilles' father will feel like when he does
kissed hands of man who killed his children
When does Achilles begin to forgive himself for letting Patroclus die?
when he is sitting with Priam
Achilles and urns
what does he say?
What does he realize?
Zeus has 2 urns - 1 of blessing and 1 of evil
sometimes he gives both, sometimes the latter only (death)
man must live despite suffering
war brings compassion for suffering of death (even of enemies)
What does Achilles give Priam
P says it takes12 days to bury hector, so he gives 12 days of truce
true hero of Iliad
Hector - not achilles bc// dangerous in his excess emotion
Poems about fall of troy
NOT BY HOMER
Virgil's Aeneid- but with Romans as audience
only Trojan prince ot survive
founds the roman race
queen of Amazons
help Trojans side
love at first sight with Achilles - he kills her
How does Achilles die? According to who?
NOT according to homer
Paris wussily shoots him in heel with arrow
Who does Achilles' armor go to? Why?
Odysseus - he gives a better speech than Ajax (best warrior)
How does Ajax go crazy?
he doesn't get Achilles armor even if he's the 2nd greatest warrior
Where is Achilles' ashes placed? Why?
with Patroclus' bc Patroclus wanted it that way
Who writes Ajax?
Who does Ajax intend to kill instead of sheep?
Agamemnon, Menelaus, Odysseus
Why does Ajax kill himself? How does he do so?
feels humiliated; ashamed for wanting to kill the men
falls on his sword
Why does Odysseus disguised as a beggar?
to sneak int o Troy to steal Athena statue to get Athena's support to defeat Trojans
Achille's son that rights in his place
Who kills Paris? With what?
Philoctetes with Herc's bow
Where is Philoctetes before at Troy?
Lemnos with odd disease - cured from it
How many men can the Trojan horse hold?
man left behind with trojan horse -
Who thinks of Trojan horse idea?
How does Trojan horse come in?
he escaped from Odysseus, who tried to kill him
tells "secret" - sacred offering to Athena - will secure her protection if taken in city
priest of Apollo
doesn't believe Sinon, so shoots arrow in horse
-> 2 sea snakes eat Laocoon and his 2 sons
Who murders Priam?
Neoptolemus at altar of zeus in P's palace
vs. Achilles' compassion - written by Romans
Who does Neoptolemus kill?
Priam - on altar
Polyxena (youngest daughter) offered on tomb of achilles
What happens to Astyanax at fall of troy?
thrown from walls
Why is the homecoming of greek heroes ruined?
Ajax the Lesser rapes Cassandra while she clings to Athena's image
she ruins it
What happens to Andromache at fall of troy?
taken as slave
What happens to Helen at fall of troy?
almost killed by Menelaus in anger
taken back to Sparta
what is this all for?