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Flashcards in Clauses and Their Relationships Deck (44)
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1

What is an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE?

A clause that stands on its own—it can be a complete sentence.

2

In order to be a sentence, every sentence must have a

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

3

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE may also be referred to as

MAIN CLAUSES

4

What is a DEPENDENT CLAUSE?

A clause (with a subject and predicate) that does not make sense on its own

5

What do DEPENDENT CLAUSES have that INDEPENDENT CLAUSES don't?

A word that links the DEPENDENT CLAUSE to the INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

BECAUSE she hated her

6

The words that link dependent to independent clauses are known as ...

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Because

When

While

After

If 

Though

Even if

Provided that

 

7

What is the purpose of SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS?

to establish a dependent relationship between a dependent clause and another clause or clauses by a connecting word that creates a subordinate relationship. 

Because she hated her so much, Sarah didn't invite Alice to her party.

8

How do coordinating conjunctions connect clauses?

They link independent clauses and create a relationship of equality between the two. 

Hungry Sharon at all the sandwiches

AND

thirsty pat drank all the lemonade

9

Some subordinating conjunctions can also serve as prepositions. How do you determine if a word is acting as a preposition or subordinating conjunction?

A preposition will have a (noun) object.

A subordinating conjunction will have a clause after it.

10

What are relative pronouns?

A way to connect clauses with pronouns, instead of conjunctions

Similar to conjunctions, relative pronouns tie together groups of words--but they are pronouns, so they stand in for nouns. 

Bill has a brother who lives in New York

11

Identify the dependent clause

Bill has a brother who lives in New York

I read the book that you recommended

Relative clauses

who lives in New York

that you recommended

12

What is "who" doing in the sentence

Bill has a brother who lives in New York.

who is a relative pronoun that is connecting the clause

Bill has a brother

with 

who (brother) lives in New York

and is also establishing a relationship between the two, making "who lives in New York a

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

13

What is a SIMPLE SENTENCE?

A sentence with one clause--an independent/main clause.

14

Name that sentence type:

Miss Scarlet committed the murder in the drawing room with the candlestick.

Simple

Remember: prepositional phrases are PHRASE, not CLAUSES. This sentence has just one independent clause.

15

Name that setence type:

"Run!"

Simple

the implied subject makes this an independent clause and thus a sentence.

16

What is a compound sentence?

A sentence that is made up of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Hungry Sharon ate all the sandwiches, and Pat was unhappy about that.

17

What purpose do compound sentences serve?

To bring together two closely related thoughts.

I am not hungry, but I will eat.

18

To link two compound sentences w/o a conjunction, use a...

semi-colon

I am hungry; I will eat.

Hungry Sharon ate all the sandwiches; Pat was unhappy about that.

19

What is a COMPLEX SENTENCE?

A sentence with one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

I borrowed the book after I read a review of it.

Note: because the subject is restated, it makes a second clause!

I borrow the book after I read a review that you mentioned.

SEE, NOW TWO DEPENDENT CLAUSES!

20

What is a COMPOUND-COMPLEX sentence?

A sentence with two or more independent/main clauses and one or more dependent/subordinate clauses.

I went to the market and I bought some corn because it looked tasty.

21

Identify this

I went to the market and I bought some corn because it looked tasty.

COMPOUND-COMPLEX

22

What are the two ways to connect clauses?

with conjunctions or with relative pronouns

23

Name the two types of dependent/subordinate clauses?

1. those linked with a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION

2. those linked with a RELATIVE CLAUSE

24

What do relative pronouns do?

introduce whole clauses--relative clauses

The car THAT I WAS DRIVING is red

The man, WHO I KNOW IS UNRELIABLE, is back.

The woman, WHOM I SAW IN THE ALLEY, was wearing a hat.

25

What do relative clauses do? How do they function in a sentence?

they POSTMODIFY NOUNS

i.e., they come after nouns and modify them, adding some kind of description or specificity

and because modifying nouns is what adjectives do relative clauses function

ADJECTIVALLY

26

What is a RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE?

What do restrictive clauses do?

a type of DEPENDENT CLAUSE that is ESSENTIAL to the meaning of a sentence

Restrictive clauses LIMIT the meaning or extent of the INDEPENDENT CLAUSE in a sentence (this is why they are essential)

 

27

What is a NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSE?

a DEPENDENT CLAUSE that is no essential to the meaning of a sentence

28

Punctuate this:

you must insert a new disk if the "disk is full" message appears

You must insert a new disk if the "disk is full" message appears.

[this if clause LIMITS when you must insert disk]

Rule: IND R-DEP

No comma needed for restrictive clauses that follow an independent clause.

29

Punctuate this:

if the disk is full message appears, you must insert a new disk

If the "disk is full" message appears, you must insert a new disk.

[Rule: DEP, IND]

When a dependent clause—restrictive or nonrestrictive—precedes an independent clause,

it is followed by a

COMMA

30

How do you punctuate IND DEP sentences?

depends on if the DEPendent clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive.

NR requires a COMMA

R gets no punctuation