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Flashcards in CLI2201 Misc Deck (100)
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1

M8 - What is the full name of the acronyms NAO, AO, AAO, ENSO, SAM, NAM, QBO, IOD, PDO, IPO, MJO, ACW and OLR?

North Atlantic Oscillation
Arctic Oscillation / Northern Annular Mode (NAM)
Antarctic Oscillation / Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
El Nino Southern Oscillation
Quasi Biennial Oscillation
Indian Ocean Dipole
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation
Madden Julian Oscillation
Antarctic Circumpolar Wave
Outgoing Longwave Radiation

2

M8 - When is the SOI high?

when the sea surface level pressure over Indonesia
is at its lowest. This corresponds to negative pressure anomalies and La Niña conditions. The easterly trade winds are strong. This is associated with maximum convective activity and rainfall in the western Pacific Ocean, and stable and drier conditions in the eastern Pacific.

3

M8 - Is SSP high or low in the west Pacific during an ENSO warm event?

During an ENSO warm event (El Niño) sea surface pressure in the western Pacific Ocean is abnormally high, while during an ENSO cold event (La Niña) it is abnormally low.

4

M8 - Is SST high or low in the west Pacific during an ENSO warm event?

El Niño: Above average in the east. Warm phase ENSO can be characterised by five consecutive 3-month averages of SST irregularities in the Niño 3.4 region, of approx. +0.5°C

La Niña: When the SST in the Nino 4 region drops below 28°C (a 0.5°C decrease) a La Niña event can be triggered.

5

M8 - Is SSL high or low in the west Pacific during an ENSO warm event?

El Niño: Higher in the east and lower in the west. A strong warm phase of ENSO, as in 1997-98 lead to the sea level rising quickly in the Eastern pacific and falling sharply in the Western pacific. During warm ENSO events, sea level in the east can be approximately 15cm higher than average (Moon, Song & Lee 2015).

La Niña: Lower in the east, higher in the west, due to the low pressure and deeper thermocline.

6

M8 - Is Nino 3.4 high or low during an ENSO warm event?

El Niño: If the SST across the 3.4 region in the equatorial pacific is above +0.5°C for a sustained period, then a warm phase ENSO event can be triggered.

La Niña: The atmospheric response to SST anomalies can trigger a La Niña event if ocean temperatures are colder than average (by approximately -0.5°C for a sustained period). Although the 3.4 region may not be the best option for determining La Niña, regional SST values are consistently lower during a cold phase ENSO event.

7

M8 - How is the Walker Cell affected by ENSO events?

El Niño: there is less rising in the west and less sinking in the east, which weakens the Walker cell. This is largely as a result of the Western Pacific Ocean Warm Water Pool cooling and moving easterly, with the rising branch of the Walker cell following. As such, upward flow weakens in the west and atypical sinking occurs, even resulting in a reversal of the Walker Cell.

La Niña: The warm Sea Surface Temperature moves to the west, enhancing the ENSO neutral conditions of the Walker Cell, strengthening the rising branch to the west and thus, strengthening the Walker Cell (Chang & Zebiak 2015).

8

M8 - How is the Western Pacific Ocean Warm Water Pool affected by ENSO events?

El Niño: It is cooler than normal in this phase, and moves east, reducing upwelling of nutrient rich and cooler waters eastward, raising globally averaged sea surface temperatures (Johnson & Birnbaum 2016).

La Niña: Strengthened trade winds keep the warm water pool trapped in the west, leading to higher convection and rainfall in Australia and cooler waters in the Eastern pacific.

9

M8 - How is the Eastern Pacific Ocean Cold Water Tongue affected by ENSO events?

El Niño: During warm phase ENSO, the cool water in the east reduces due to reduced upwelling and relaxed thermocline and is replaced by warmer surface water from the west.

La Niña: The cool water in the eastern pacific ‘tongue’ can be cooler by 3°C, as upwelling strengthens (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration 2019).

10

M8 - How are the Trade Winds affected by ENSO events?

El Niño: During an El Niño event, trade winds significantly weaken and may possibly even reverse, due to a weakened Walker circulation, which flattens the thermocline.

La Niña: As the Walker circulation intensifies, the trade winds blowing westward get significantly stronger.

11

M8 - How are the Trade Winds affected by ENSO events?

El Niño: During an El Niño event, trade winds significantly weaken and may possibly even reverse, due to a weakened Walker circulation, which flattens the thermocline.

La Niña: As the Walker circulation intensifies, the trade winds blowing westward get significantly stronger.

12

M1 - What are the five main building blocks of the climate system?

Hydrosphere, atmosphere, land, biosphere and cryosphere

13

M1 - Which two climate system components drive climate on time scales important to most human activities?

Weather and Climate

14

M2 - What is an example for the linkage between the cryosphere as a global environmental system and a human system?

The cryosphere is a consequence of the global radiation balance and global temperature variations can lead to changes within the cryosphere that can impact upon socio-economic systems. The cryosphere is a key indicator for global CC.

It consists of sub-components: snow cover, ice caps, permafrost, ice sheets and seasonally frozen ground.

15

M2 - What are some key indicators of global warming?

Melting ice accelerating, breaking off of ice shelves (i.e. Larsen B), retreat of glaciers.

16

M2 - What are the major ecosystems of earth?

Freshwater, Marine / Ocean, Grassland, Forest, Desert, Cropland

17

M2 - What are the two global property cycles that are linked via the transport of latent heat?

Hydrological cycle and heat / thermal energy cycle.

18

M2 - What are the climate system components that are referred to as active climate system components?

Active means important upon the human and non- geological time scale – the atmosphere is the most active, followed by the ocean, continents and the Earth mantle.

19

M2 - The formula for residence time scale is
T = V/ F;

What do each variable (T, V and F) stand for?

T = residence time (s)
V = volume (m3)
F the flux (m3.s-1).

20

M3 - Which of the global water masses is the:
a) Coldest
b) Freshest
c) Saltiest

a) Antarctic Bottom Water
b) North Pacific Ocean (NPO)
c) North Atlantic Deep Water

21

M3 - Where is the coldest and densest water in an ocean usually found?

At the bottom.

22

M3 - From lowest to highest, list the 5 atmospheric spheres.

i) Troposphere (approx 0-10km)
ii) Stratosphere (approx 15-50km)
iii) Mesophere (approx 50-85km)
iv) Thermosphere (approx 85-120km)
v) Exosphere (120km+)

23

M4 - What is expressed through Stefan Boltzmans law?

The total energy F emitted by a Black Body. F = σ x T4

24

M4 - How much energy is emitted at the top of the atmosphere (ie. what is the energy balance)?

235 W.m-2

25

M4 - What is the amount of incoming solar (short-wave) radiation at the top of the atmosphere?

342 W.m-2.

26

M4 - What is the amount of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere?

107 W.m-2.

27

M5 - What are the three forces that act upon a fluid parcel in a fix reference system?

Friction, gravity and Coriolis force (force associated with the rotation of earth)

28

M5 - What are the two apparent forces that appear in the general momentum equation?

Amount of force, and length of time that force is applied

29

M5 - What is the approximate range of mean zonal surface wind velocities?

–10 m.s-1 to +12 m.s-1.

30

M5 - What the approximate latitudinal range of the storm tracks in the northern and southern hemisphere?

30-40oS in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere