Clinical Anatomy of the Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

Pelvis and Lower Limb > Clinical Anatomy of the Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Anatomy of the Lower Limb Deck (42):
1

What 4 bones make up the pelvis?

Ilium, ischium, pubic bone and sacrum

2

There are lots of vessels within the pelvis, what is the significance of this?

Lots of potential for bleeding in pelvic fractures

3

Which nerves are found in the pelvis and are responsible for bladder and bowel control?

Pudendal nerve and pelvic splanchnic nerves

4

What nerve is sensitive to injury of the greater sciatic notch?

Sciatic nerve

5

Which internal structures can be damaged with pelvic trauma?

Urethra, bladder, rectum and uterus

6

Anatomically, what makes the femoral head susceptible to AVN?

Ring anastomosis of vessels at the base of the femoral neck

7

Which hip fractures should be replaced?

Intracapsular

8

What are the roles of the gluteus maximus?

Extension and external rotation of hip

9

The gluteus medius is the chief of which movement?

Hip abduction

10

A trendelenberg test implies damage to which nerve?

Superior gluteal nerve

11

What happens in an abnormal Trendelenberg test?

The pelvis will tilt away from the stance leg

12

What is the most powerful flexor of the thigh? What is it attached to?

Iliopsoas- attached to the lesser trochanter

13

The adductors of the thigh are mainly supplied by what nerve?

Obturator

14

The quadriceps muscles are supplied by which nerve? If there is damage to these muscles then the patient won't be able to do what?

Femoral - won't be able to straight leg raise

15

What type of bone is the patella? It is attached to the tibial tubercle via what?

Sesamoid bone- via the patellar tendon

16

Which hamstring muscle can be used as a tendon graft for reconstructions?

Semitendinosis

17

Which hamstring muscle is most likely to tear?

Biceps femoris

18

Why can some hip pathology be felt in the knee?

Joint sensory supply from the obturator nerve

19

What is the first range of movement that will be lost in a damaged hip?

Internal rotation

20

The adductor canal goes through which muscle?

Adductor magnus

21

What type of cartilage are menisci? What is their function?

Fibrocartilage - shock absorbers

22

Which meniscus is fixed? Which is mobile?

Medial = fixed, lateral = mobile

23

Which meniscus is more likely to tear?

Medial

24

Which ligament of the knee resists vagus stress?

Medial collateral

25

Which ligament of the knee resists varus stress and helps to resist external rotation?

Lateral collateral

26

Which ligament of the knee resists internal rotation and anterior translation of the tibia?

Anterior cruciate

27

Which ligament of the knee resists posterior/anterior translation of the tibia and presents knee hyperextension?

Posterior cruciate

28

On average, our anatomical axis of the lower limb is at 6 degrees valgus. What does this allow?

The centres of the hip, knee and ankle align perfectly (allows distribution of load between medial and lateral compartments)

29

Genu varum results in a lot of stress on which compartments?

Medial

30

Give two examples of bursitis in the lower limb?

Achilles tendonitis or plantar fasciitis

31

Do inflamed bursae usually go away?

Usually recurrent

32

What muscle is the most powerful dorsiflexor of the leg?

Tibialis anterior

33

What nerve supplies the anterior leg?

Deep fibular

34

What nerve supplies the posterior leg?

Tibial

35

What nerve supplies the lateral leg?

Superficial fibular

36

What happens in compartment syndrome?

Swelling causes increased pressure which occludes venous drainage causing secondary ischaemia

37

What is the treatment for compartment syndrome?

Fasciotomy

38

How many ankle ligaments must be affected to have an instability injury?

2

39

What type of injury are lateral ankle sprains?

Inversion injury

40

What should you always look for on an x-ray of an ankle?

Talar shift

41

What muscles in the foot can assist flexion of the MTP joints and extension of the PIPs and DIPs?

Lumbricals

42

An imbalance of the flexor and extensor tendons of the foot can cause what?

Claw/hammer toe deformities