What is paralytic ileus?
Paralytic ileus is a condition wherein the intestine is obstructed due to the loss of GI contractility (paralysis of the intestinal muscles)
What is peptic ulcer disease?
Peptic ulcer disease is a condition which occurs when ulcers form and extend into the muscularis mucosae of the stomach due to defects in gastric/duodenal mucosa
What is an epigastric hernia?
An epigastric hernia is a type of hernia which occurs when abdominal contents go through the linea alba between xiphoid process-umbilicus
What is an indirect inguinal hernia?
An indirect inguinal hernia is a type of hernia where the peritoneal sac enters the inguinal canal through the deep inguinal ring and passes through the canal to the superficial inguinal ring
What is cirrhosis?
Cirrhosis is a condition caused by liver fibrosis, producing a shrunken hard nodular liver
What is inflammatory bowel disease?
Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of clinical conditions which are characterised by the idiopathic inflammation of the GI tact and affect the overall function of the gut
What is Hirschsprung’s disease?
Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disorder of the colons wherein a lack of myenteric and submucosal plexuses cause chronic constipation
What is pyloric stenosis?
Pyloric stenosis is the hypertrophy of the circular muscle in the region of the pyloric sphincter (not a recanalisation failure)
What is chronic pancreatitis?
- Chronic pancreatitis is rare condition caused by alchol abuse where repeated low grade pancreatitis causes pancreatic fibrosis
- The pancreas becomes calcified and patients suffer severe epigastric and back pain that leads to opiate addiction and not infrequently suicide
What is acute cholecystitis?
Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, occurring when a gallstone blocks the cystic duct and commonly caused by E.coli
What is cholangitis?
Cholangitis is an infection in the bile ducts and a life-threatening complication of bile duct obstruction, commonly caused by E. Coli
What is a strangulated femoral hernia?
A strangulated femoral hernia is type of hernia which occurs when a femoral hernia blocks blood supply to part of the bowel
What is autoimmune gastritis?
Autoimmune gastritis is a clinical condition wherein the stomach lining is inflamed due to antibodies to gastric parietal cells
What is gastroschisis?
- Gastroschisis is the failure of closure of the abdominal wall during the folding of the embryo
- The gut tube & derivatives are outside the body cavitiy
What is bacterial gastritis?
Bacterial gastritis is a clinical condition wherein the stomach lining is inflamed commonly due to the H.pylori bacteria
What is achalasia?
Achalasia is a rare disorder of the oesophagus wherein the loss of contraction of oesophageal muscles leads to the failure of LOS to relax (open – dysphagia)
What is biliary colic?
- Biliary colic is pain in the right upper quadrant that radiates to the tip of the right scapula/right shouder
- It is often precipitated by eating a fatty meal and lasts up to 6 hours
What is a hernia?
A hernia is a protrusion of part of the abdominal contents beyond the normal confines of it containing cavity e.g abdominal wall
What is Ulcerative colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that where the large intestine and the rectum are severely inflamed
What is Coeliac disease?
Coeliac disease is the intolerance of the gliadin fraction of gluten which is found in wheat, rye and barley and results in immune response
What is an acquired infantile hernia?
An acquired infantile hernia is a type of umbilical hernia where the contents herniate through weakness in scar of umbilicus
What is a direct inguinal hernia?
- A direct inguinal hernia is a type of hernia where the peritoneal sac enters the inguinal canal through the posterior wall of the inguinal canal
- It bulges through Hesselbach’s triangle and is in the vicinity of the superficial inguinal ring
What is stomach cancer?
Stomach cancer is a condition which involves tumour formation in the stomach lining
What is an acquired adult hernia?
An acquired adult hernia is a type of umbilical hernia where the contents go through the linea alba in region of umbilicus
What is omphalocoele?
Omphalocoele is the persistence of physiological herniation with a thin tissue layer covering
What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a condition when 1/more gastrin-secreting tumors (gastrinoma) form in your pancreas and duodenum
What is Crohn's disease?
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus
What is acute pancreatitis?
- Acute pancreatitis is a common condition arising from the premature activation of pancreatic proteases in the pancreas itself rather than in the duodenum
- These proteases then autodigest the pancreas and the retroperitoneum
What is indeterminate colitis?
Indeterminate colitis refers to the 10% of cases of inflammatory bowel disease where there is difficulty distinguishing between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
What is xerostomia?
- Xerostomia is the dryness of the mouth due to a change in the composition of saliva or reduced saliva in the mouth
- It is associated with dehydration