Clinical Enzymology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Enzymology Deck (16):
1

Plasma enzymes can be classified into two major groups:

1.A relatively small group of enzymes are actively secreted into the blood by certain cell types.
Ex: the liver secretes zymogens of the enzymes involved in blood coagulation.

2.A large number of enzyme species are released from cells during normal cell turnover.
They function intracellularly and have no physiologic use in the plasma.

2

Increases in the amounts of enzymes released are not always due to tissue damage. Other possible causes include:


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-Increased cell turnover.
-Cellular proliferation.
-Increased enzyme synthesis.
-Obstruction to secretion.

3

Enzyme assays depend on....

the measurement the catalytic activity of the enzyme

4

Disadvantages of enzyme assays

lack of specificity to a particular tissue or cell type.

5

Aminotransferases name of the ones used in diagnosis and management:

-Aspartate aminotransferase (AST).
-Alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

6

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
-elevated in...

-significantly elevated in myocardial infarction, moderately elevated in liver diseases.

7

Alanine amino transferase (ALT)
-abundant in...
-elevated in...

-liver

-Very high levels are seen in acute hepatitis.
-Moderate increase are seen in chronic liver disease.

8

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
-monomers
-isoenzymes
-elevated in...

-H and M
-H4, H3M, H2M2, M3H and M4.
-leukemias, carcinomas, hemolytic anemia, muscular dystrophy

9

Creatine Kinase (CK)
-subunits
-isoenzymes

- B (brain) and M (muscle)
-BB, MM, MB

10

Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
-elevated in...
-it is seen in...

-infective hepatitis, prostate cancers, alcoholism, jaundice
-liver, kidney, pancreas, prostate gland

11

Amylase
-function
-produced by
-elevated in...
-activated by

-splits starch to maltose
-pancreas and salivary glands
-acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, renal disease
-calcium, chloride, fluoride ions

12

Lipase
-function
-elevated in...

- it will hydrolyse triglyceride to B- monoglyceride and fatty acid.
-acute pancreatitis, it is elevated longer than amylase

13

Enzymopathies
-definition
-types

-Any disturbance of enzyme function.
-inborn and acquired enzymopathies

14

Inborn enzymopathies (2)

-error of metabolism consisting of defective or absent enzymes.
-Defect in various metabolic pathways: amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotide.

15

Acquired enzymopathies (4)

-Disease (ex: pancreatitis),
-surgical organ removal (ex: stomach resection),
-alimental (abnormally low protein intake),
-toxic substances.

16

Phenylketonuria
-caused by...
-excess of PHE can

-an absence or deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
-prevent normal brain development and result in mental retardation.