Flashcards in Clinical Enzymology Deck (16):
Plasma enzymes can be classified into two major groups:
1.A relatively small group of enzymes are actively secreted into the blood by certain cell types.
Ex: the liver secretes zymogens of the enzymes involved in blood coagulation.
2.A large number of enzyme species are released from cells during normal cell turnover.
They function intracellularly and have no physiologic use in the plasma.
Increases in the amounts of enzymes released are not always due to tissue damage. Other possible causes include:
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-Increased cell turnover.
-Increased enzyme synthesis.
-Obstruction to secretion.
Enzyme assays depend on....
the measurement the catalytic activity of the enzyme
Disadvantages of enzyme assays
lack of specificity to a particular tissue or cell type.
Aminotransferases name of the ones used in diagnosis and management:
-Aspartate aminotransferase (AST).
-Alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
-significantly elevated in myocardial infarction, moderately elevated in liver diseases.
Alanine amino transferase (ALT)
-Very high levels are seen in acute hepatitis.
-Moderate increase are seen in chronic liver disease.
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
-H and M
-H4, H3M, H2M2, M3H and M4.
-leukemias, carcinomas, hemolytic anemia, muscular dystrophy
Creatine Kinase (CK)
- B (brain) and M (muscle)
-BB, MM, MB
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
-it is seen in...
-infective hepatitis, prostate cancers, alcoholism, jaundice
-liver, kidney, pancreas, prostate gland
-splits starch to maltose
-pancreas and salivary glands
-acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, renal disease
-calcium, chloride, fluoride ions
- it will hydrolyse triglyceride to B- monoglyceride and fatty acid.
-acute pancreatitis, it is elevated longer than amylase
-Any disturbance of enzyme function.
-inborn and acquired enzymopathies
Inborn enzymopathies (2)
-error of metabolism consisting of defective or absent enzymes.
-Defect in various metabolic pathways: amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotide.
Acquired enzymopathies (4)
-Disease (ex: pancreatitis),
-surgical organ removal (ex: stomach resection),
-alimental (abnormally low protein intake),