Clinical Features of Respiratory diseases Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Block > Clinical Features of Respiratory diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Features of Respiratory diseases Deck (50):
1

What are the main defining clinical features for asthma?

Wheeze
Cough
Dyspnoea

2

What other causes of wheezing illness (other than asthma) are there?

COPD
Bronchiectasis
Bronchiolitis
Cystic Fibrosis

3

What are the essential investigations to do when diagnosing asthma?

Spirometry
Full pulmonary function testing (To exclude COPD/ emphysema)
Reversibility with bronchodilator/oral corticosteroid
Peak flow (If spirometry is normal)

4

What other investigations can be useful in asthma? (Non-essential)

Chest X-ray (Will show hyper inflation)
Skin prick testing (Identifies allergens)

5

What 5 things do you look for to assess the severity of the asthma?

Ability to speak
HR
RR
PEFR
Oxygen sats/ABGs

6

What are the main symptoms for someone presenting with COPD?

Cough
Sputum
Dyspnoea
Wheeze

7

What are some of the signs for someone with COPD?

Tachypnoea
Use of respiratory accessory muscles
Hyperinflation (Barrel chest)
Quiet breath sounds
Flapping tremor
Cyanosis

8

What are the essential investigations in a COPD patient?

Spirometry
Full Pulmonary function testing (Increase in RV and TLC)
Reversibility to bronchodilator? (should be none)

9

What are some useful investigations for a COPD patient? (Non-essential)

CXR (hyperinflation + flat hemidiaphragms)
ECG: (RA + RV hypertrophy)
ABGs (Decreased PaO2 and potentially hypercapnia)

10

What are the signs of an acute exacerbation of COPD?

Increased cough with sputum
Increased dyspnoea
Increased wheeze
Increased oedema
Inability to sleep
Confusion

11

What are the general treatments for someone with COPD?

Smoking cessation
Improved nutrition
Treat obesity

12

What is the treatment for someone with severe COPD?

Combination of long-acting B2 agonist and corticosteroids (budesonide and formeterol)

13

What are the main clinical features of pneumonia?

Malaise
Fever
Pleuritic chest pain
Cough with purulent or rusty sputum
Dyspnoea

14

What are the main signs of pneumonia?

Pyrexia
Tachypnoea
Central cyanosis
Dullness on percussion of the affected lobes
Bronchial breath sounds
Increased vocal resonance

15

What are the investigations that should be done if pneumonia is suspected?

Serum biochemistry and Full blood count
Chest X-ray
Blood culture and throat swab
Sputum microscopy and culture

16

What are the main symptoms of Bronchiectasis?

Chronic cough
Daily sputum production
Occasional wheeze, dyspnoea and tiredness

17

What are the main signs in bronchiectasis?

Finger clubbing
Coarse crepitations

18

What investigations should be done if bronchiectasis is suspected?

CT thorax
Sputum culture
CF genotyping
Serum immunoglobulins

19

What may an empyema resemble on a chest x-ray?

Pleural effusion

20

What are the general common symptoms of URTIs?

Nasal congestion
Runny nose
Nasal breathing
Sneezing
Sore throat
Painful swallowing
Cough
Fever
Malaise

21

What are the main symptoms of the common cold?

Tickling nose
Sneezing
Clear nasal discharge

22

What are the main causative organisms for tonsilitis?

Strep. Pyogenes
Adenovirus
EBV (If glandular fever)

23

What are the main clinical features for epiglottitis?

Sudden onset of sore throat - painful swallowing
Dry cough
Muffled voice
Fever/ drooling

24

What are the clinical features of glandular fever?

Sore throat
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Fever
Hepatitis
Fine red skin rash

25

If tonsilitis is suspected, what two main investigations would you carry out?

Throat swab
Blood film

26

What are the investigations recommended if pulmonary embolism is suspected?

ABGs ( May show hypoxia and hypocapnia)
D-dimer (negative result excludes PE)
ECG
CXR
FBCs, U+Es
V/Q scan - V/Q mismatch can be very useful

27

What are the investigations recommended for Deep vein thrombosis?

D-dimer (helpful if -ve)
Ultrasound (Ifd-dimer +ve)
Venogram

28

What are the symptoms of Pulmonary embolism?

Breathlessness
Pleuritic Chest pain
Cough
Haemoptysis

29

What are the major signs of Pulmonary hypertension?

Cyanosis
Tachypnoea
Tachycardia
Raised JVP
Pleural Rub/effusion

30

What are the main clinical features of a DVT?

Leg swelling
Redness
Tenderness
Oedema
Tight calves
Mild fever

31

What are the symptoms of pulmonary hypertension?

Dyspnoea
Fatigue
Weakness
Angina
Syncope
Chest tightness

32

What are the main signs of pulmonary hypertension?

RV heave
Ejection systolic murmur
Peripheral oedema
Hepatomegaly

33

What are the main investigations to do when PHT is suspected?

CXR
ECG
Pulmonary Function test
V/Q scan
Echo
High resolution CT

34

What are the signs of bronchitis?

Wheeze
Increased RR
Hyperinflation

35

What are the main symptoms of bronchitis?

Breathlessness
Cough
Sputum

36

What are the main signs of lung cancer?

Lymphadenopathy
Weight Loss
Hoarse voice
Eyelid drop
Clubbing
Pleural effusion

37

What are the main symptoms of lung cancer?

Shoulder pain
Cough
Haemoptysis
SOB
Malaise

38

Which investigations would be done if lung cancer is suspected?

CXR
Biopsy
Sputum
Cytology
Bronchoscopy
Fine needle aspiration
CT/ MRI/ PET

39

What g/l would a transudate be?

40

What are the main signs of a pleural effusion?

Decreased Chest expansion
Bronchial breath sounds
Increased JVP
Deviated trachea (Large effusion)

41

What are the main symptoms of a pleural effusion?

SOB (Increasing)
Pleuritic chest pain
Dry cough

42

What are the main signs of a pneumothorax?

Decreased Chest expansion
Absent breath sounds
Deviated trachea

43

What are the main signs of sarcoidosis?

Lymphadenopathy
Spleen affected
Abnormal CXR

44

What are the main symptoms of Sarcoidosis?

SOB
Cough
Erythema nodosum (red lumps on skin)

45

What are the main signs of hypersensitive pneumonitis?

Crackles
Wheeze
Increased Resp rate

46

What are the main symptoms of Hypersensitive pneumonitis?

Fever
Dry cough
Chills
Malaise
SOB

47

What are the main signs of tuberculosis?

Erythema nodosum
Night sweats
Pleural effusion
Cough
Mucus in sputum
Haemoptysis

48

What are the main signs of cystic fibrosis?

Cyanosis
Finger clubbing
Pancreatic insufficiency
Failure to thrive
Offensive stools
Recurrent chest infections
Lung abscess

49

What are the main symptoms of cystic fibrosis?

Male infertility (95%)
Nasal polyps

50

What are the main signs of sleep apnoea?

Snoring
Unrefreshing sleep
Daytime solemnence
Decreased levels of concentration