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Flashcards in Clinical ID Deck (23):
1

Poliovirus
Poliomyelitis

virus

2

Chlamydia trachomatis
Trachoma

chlamydiae

3

Rickettsia prowazekii
Typhus fever

Rickettsiae

4

Staphylococcus epidermidis
Wound Infection

bacteria

5

Vibrio cholerae
Cholera

bacterai

6

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pneumonia

bacteria

7

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tuberculosis

bacteria

8

trichophyton sp.
Tinea pedis

fungi imperfecti

9

candida albicans
Thrush

fungi imperfecti

10

sporothrix schenckii
Sporotrichosis

fungi imperfecti

11

Histoplasma capsulatum
Histoplasmosis

fungi imperfecti

12

Giardia lamblia
Giardiasis

Protozoa

13

trypanosoma gambiense
sleeping sickness

Protozoa

14

trypanosoma cruzi
Chagas disease

Protozoa

15

Leishmania donovani
Kala-azar

Protozoa

16

enterobius vermicularis
Oxyuriasis

Helminths

17

Wuchereria bancrofti
Filariasis

Helminths

18

Trichinella Spiralis
Trichinosis

Helminths

19

What are the human host barriers to infection?

1. intact host skin and mucosal surfaces
2. secretory-excretory products
ex. lysozyme in tears and stomach acids

20

What are the mechanisms of bacteria induced injury

1. bacterial virulence
-depends on ability of bacteria to adhere, invade, and deliver toxic moieties

2. bacterial adherence
a. adhesins are bacterial surface molecules that bind to host cells
b. entry into macrophages
c.entry into epithelial cells

3. bacterial endotoxin
-LPS -induce host cytokines release to cause fever, activate macrophages and b-cells

4. bacterial exotoxins
-toxins released by bacteria that interfere with metabolism and allow bacteria to outgrow competing bacteria

21

What are the microbial pathogens that exhibit significant antigenic variation?

1. rhinoviruses
2. influenza virus
3. neisseria gonorrhoeae
4. borrelia hermsii-relapsing fever
5. borrelia burgdorferi-lyme disease
6. trypanosoma brucei-African sleeping sickness
7. giardia lamblia
8. plasmodium falciparum-severe malaria

22

What are the 5 types of inflammatory response? give an example of a microorganism that would cause this type of inflammation

1. suppurative (polymorphonuclear) inflammation
-bacteria recruit neutrophils, increased vascular permeability directly by chemoattractive peptides and indirectly by release of endotoxin which stimulates macrophages to release cytokines and chemoattractant
-caused by pyogenic bacteria

2. mononuclear and granulomatous inflammation
-diffuse, predominantly mononuclear interstitial infiltrates form in response to pathogens
-syphilis chancres-lymphocytes
-mycobacterial granulomas-macrophages
-tb and syphilis

3. cytopathic-cytoproliferative inflammation
-reactions characteristic of virus-mediated damage to indicudual host cells in the absence of host inflammatory response
-results in: inclusion bodies (CMV), polykaryons following cell fusion (measles), blisters due to cell damage (herpes virus), morphologic lesions (venereal warts/HPV), dysplastic changes and cancer

4. necrotizing inflammation
-rapid and severe tissue damage with predominant cell death in the absence of inflammatory infiltrates
-caused by uncontrolled viral infections, secreted bacterial toxins or cytolysis of host cells in protozoa infections (eg. necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus)

5. chronic inflammation and scarring
-chronic inflammation can lead to either complete healing or to extensive scarring
-several inert organism cause damage by the scarring response (ex. schistosome eggs-parasite)

23

What are the three classes of Helminthes? Give an example of each

1. roundworms
-hookworms and trichinella
2. flatworms
-tapeworms
3. flukes
-schistosomes