Rapid, jerky movements that bring the image of a new object onto the fovea.
They also allow us to quickly scan points on an image to capture salient features (like a new face).
Smooth pursuit eye movement
eye movements keep a moving image
centered on the fovea. (tracking, “keeping your eye on the ball”)
keeps an image steady on the fovea during head movements.
keeps the image on the fovea
when the viewed object is moved nearer or farther away.
medial longitudinal fasciculus
It is involved in coordinating eye and head movements by yoking the motor nuclei of CN III, IV and VI, integrating movements directed by the frontal eye field (gaze centers) and vestibular information coming from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
itching eyes suggest...
bilateral eye symptomes suggest...
unilateral eye symptomes suggest...
viruses and bacteria, usually start in one eye then move to second eye a couple days later
Eye pain, photophobia, blurred vision suggests what...
not typically associated with conjunctivitis
Commonly occurs in community epidemics
Acutely red eye, watery discharge and foreign-body sensation
May also have URI
Most common virus – adenovirus
Less common but more severe – herpes simples and zoster
Severe, sight-threatening infection
Abrupt onset, copious yellow-green discharge
Redness, tender, lid swelling, adenopathy
Caused by N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
Presents in neonates and sexually active young adults
Burning, tearing, mucopurulent or purulent discharge
Eyelids matted together on awakening
Slower onset and much less severe than hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
Most commonly caused by staph species
Eyelid symptoms and findings including swelling, debris, eyelash loss
Ocular Chlamydial Infections
Trachoma – serotypes A-C (most common in US)
Inclusion conjunctivitis – serotypes D-K (vision threatening) newborn and adults
- Most common cause of ocular morbidity and preventable blindness in the world.
- Rural Africa, Asia and the Middle East
- Rare in North America but seen in immigrants
Sexually transmitted disease of newborns and adults
Infants exposed to chlamydia from mother’s infected cervix
Develop tearing, conjunctival discharge and eyelid swelling 5-12 days after birth
- Presents in young, sexually active persons between 18-30
Treatment of Conjunctivitis
Hyperacute – ceftriaxone IM plus topical eye antiobiotic plus saline irrigation
Acute bacterial – topical antibiotic
Chronic bacterial – warm compresses to eyelids and scrubbing of eyelids, topical antibiotic
Chlamydia – oral tetracycline, doxycycline or erythromycin for two to three weeks
A 6-year-old male is brought to your office by his father. He has a three-day history of a red right eye and a one-day history of slight left eye redness. His kindergarten class has several students with the same illness. He has a mild cold and notes some clear drainage of the eye. You recommend:
cold compresses and supportive care
most likely viral etiology... adenovirus?
A 24-year-old male presents with a one-day history of right eye redness, eyelid swelling and a copious yellow-green drainage. The most infectious etiology causing these symptoms is:
A 70 year old female presents with a one year history of intermittent right eye crusting and eyelid swelling. She has no pain in the eye and no recent colds. In your treatment, you want to make sure you cover: