Flashcards in Clinical problem solving: electrolytes, acid-base Deck (21):
in lean adults, body fluids constitute what % of the female body? male body?
- female: 55%
- male: 60%
what proportion of the body fluid is intracellular fluid?
what % of the ECF is interstitial fluid? plasma?
- interstitial fluid: 80%
- plasma: 20%
where is the thirst center located?
what is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?
extent of urinary SALT loss
what is the main factor that determines body fluid osmolarity?
extent of urinary WATER loss
how does ANP affect fluid homeostasis?
promotes natriuresis, excretion of Na and Cl followed by water excretion to decrease blood volume
what is the major hormone regulating water loss?
ADH promotes insertion of aquaporin-2 into what cells? in what part of the nephron?
- principal cells
- collecting duct
what are the 4 general functions of electrolytes?
- control water osmosis
- acid-base balance
- carry electrical current
what are the major cation of the ECF?
what is the major anion of the ECF?
what is the major cation of the ICF?
what are the major anions of the ICF?
how does PTH affect phosphate homeostasis?
- stimulates resorption of bone by osteoclasts
- calcium released, phosphate released
- inhibits reabsorption of phosphate in kidneys
ammonium is produced from the metabolism of what amino acid?
each glutamine produces how many ammonium ions? what about bicarbonate?
2 ammonium, 2 bicarbonate
how can you differentiate between the etiologies of hypokalemic alkalosis?
in what situations (GI, GU) will you see a low-normal BP in hypokalemic alkalosis?
- NG suction
what will the BP be in the hypokalemic, alkalotic state of bartter's and gitelman's syndromes?