Clinical problem solving: electrolytes, acid-base Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Renal > Clinical problem solving: electrolytes, acid-base > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical problem solving: electrolytes, acid-base Deck (21):
1

in lean adults, body fluids constitute what % of the female body? male body?

- female: 55%

- male: 60%

2

what proportion of the body fluid is intracellular fluid?

2/3

3

what % of the ECF is interstitial fluid? plasma?

- interstitial fluid: 80%

- plasma: 20%

4

where is the thirst center located?

hypothalamus

5

what is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?

extent of urinary SALT loss

6

what is the main factor that determines body fluid osmolarity?

extent of urinary WATER loss

7

how does ANP affect fluid homeostasis?

promotes natriuresis, excretion of Na and Cl followed by water excretion to decrease blood volume

8

what is the major hormone regulating water loss?

ADH

9

ADH promotes insertion of aquaporin-2 into what cells? in what part of the nephron?

- principal cells
- collecting duct

10

what are the 4 general functions of electrolytes?

- control water osmosis
- acid-base balance
- carry electrical current
- cofactors

11

what are the major cation of the ECF?

Na

12

what is the major anion of the ECF?

Cl

13

what is the major cation of the ICF?

K

14

what are the major anions of the ICF?

proteins, phosphates

15

how does PTH affect phosphate homeostasis?

- stimulates resorption of bone by osteoclasts
- calcium released, phosphate released
- inhibits reabsorption of phosphate in kidneys

16

ammonium is produced from the metabolism of what amino acid?

glutamine

17

each glutamine produces how many ammonium ions? what about bicarbonate?

2 ammonium, 2 bicarbonate

18

how can you differentiate between the etiologies of hypokalemic alkalosis?

BP

19

in what situations (GI, GU) will you see a low-normal BP in hypokalemic alkalosis?

GI:
- vomiting
- NG suction

GU:
- diuretics
- bartter's
- gitelman's

20

what will the BP be in the hypokalemic, alkalotic state of bartter's and gitelman's syndromes?

low-normal

21

what will the BP be in the hypokalemic, alkalotic state of liddle's syndrome?

high