Clinical: uterus (hysterectomy & endometrium disorder) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical: uterus (hysterectomy & endometrium disorder) Deck (19):
1

what is hysterectomy?

surgical removal of the uterus

2

what is hysterectomy usually a result of?

result of uterine / cervical cancer

3

what is at risk of being damaged in hysterectomy?

ureters

4

why is ureters at risk of damage?

uterine artery crosses ureters about 1cm lateral to internal os

5

how would the ureters be damaged during hysterectomy?

damaged during clamping of uterine arteries

6

what is water under the bridge?

water is ureters
bridge is the uterine artery (bridge on top)

7

what is Endometriosis?

the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue at sites outside the uterus

8

where are the most common sites of endometriosis?

the ovaries and the ligaments of the uterus

9

why does a cyst occur from ectopic tissue?

Ectopic tissue is still responsive to oestrogenic stimuli therefore cyclic proliferation and bleeding occur, often forming a cyst

10

what is endometriosis associated with?

dysmenorrhoea and/or infertility

11

what are fibroids?

benign tumours of the endometrium which affect 20% of menopausal women

12

what are fibroids dependent on?

They are oestrogen dependent

13

when do fibroids enlarge?

during pregnancy and with use of the contraceptive pill

14

when do fibroids tend to regress?

after the menopause

15

how do most fibroids present?

Most fibroids are asymptomatic, but if large enough the uterine mass can cause symptoms including menorrhagia, pelvic pain and infertility

16

which is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract?

Endometrial Carcinoma

17

when are endometrial carcinoma most often found?

during, or after, the menopause

18

what is endometrial carcinoma most often found?

by abnormal uterine bleeding

19

where are the majority of neoplasms (endometrial carcinoma) found?

in the transformation zone of the cervix between the columnar epithelium of the endocervix and the stratified squamous epithelium of the exocervix