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Flashcards in Clinical Vocabulary Deck (24)
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1

Normal flora

Bacteria (etc.) that normally inhabit body. They are usually acquired shortly after birth and considered nonpathogenic except in the case of immunocompromised hosts. Some serve an important function such as production of vitamin K by the enterobacteriaceae in the gastrointestinal tract.

2

Resident Flora

Bacteria (etc.) present majority of time may change with different stages of life.

3

Transient Flora

Come and go, do not usually cause damage.

4

Infection

presence of a microorganism (not normal flora) in or on the body may or may not result in clinical symptoms (disease).

5

Infectivity

How frequently an agent is transmitted to a susceptible person.

6

Disease

a change in health due to the infection, clinical manifestations.

7

Endemic Disease

Present in a low but constant level in an area.

8

Epidemic Disease

More cases than predicted within a certain community

9

Pandemic Disease

Epidemic that spreads throughout the world.

10

Pathogenesis

Capacity of a microorganism to cause infection.

11

Virulence

Degree of pathogenicity, # of severe or fatal cases/total # of cases

12

Virulence Factor

Any property of an organism that determines ability to cause infection and severity of infection. For example: Attachment, survival, escaping immune system, etc.

13

Nosocomial infection

hospital acquired

14

Community acquired

outside of hospital

15

Communicable

spread from person to person

16

Zoonotic

associated with or carried by animals

17

Opportunistic Infection

an infection caused by a microorganism that does not usually cause a disease in a healthy individual. The patient is immunosuppressed or immunocompromised

18

Chronic Disease

a disease that is long-lasting

19

Recurrent Disease

a disease that relapses repeatedly, with periods of remission in between.

20

Acute Disease

A disease with both a rapid onset a short duration

21

Epidemiology

The study of mechanisms involved in the spread of diseases and other health-related problems within a population

22

Etiology

the cause of the infection.

23

Incidence of Disease

# of new cases within a specified time

24

Prevalence of Disease

Total # of cases in a population at a given time