Clinicopathologic Considerations of Dyspepsia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinicopathologic Considerations of Dyspepsia Deck (28)
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1

What demographic is affected by infectious esophagitis?

Immune compromised individuals

2

What is dyspepsia?

Indigestion

3

What is dysphagia?

Difficulty swallowing

4

What is odynophagia?

Painful swallowing

5

What does postprandial mean?

After eating

6

What is GERD?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

7

5 causes of esophagitis?

1.) Chemical/physical
2.) Infections
3.) Reflux (GERD)
4.) GVHD (Graft vs host disease)
5.) Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE)

8

What can cause infectious esophagitis?

HSV
CMV
Candidiasis

9

What causes GERD?

Incompetent LES

10

What occurs in GERD?

Refluxed gastric acid overwhelms mucous defenses: Mucous, HCO3-

11

Treatment of GERD?

First elimination of risks
Proton pump inhibitors

12

What is eosinophilic esophagitis?

Allergic reaction causing esophagus inflammation

13

Where does GERD affect?

Only distal 1/3 of the esophagus

14

Where does eosinophilic esophagitis affect?

Throughout the entire esophagus

15

What are symptoms of EE?

Abundance of eosinophils in the throat and atopic (dermatitis)

16

What is the treatment for EE?

Dietary change (PPI's don't work)

17

What occurs in Barrett's esophagus?

Squamous cells in distal 1/3 of esophagus changing to small intestinal epithelium with goblet cells; metaplastic (reversible)

18

What does Barrett's esophagus put the patient at risk for?

Adenocarcinoma

19

Where does squamous cell carcinoma occur?

Proximal and distal end of esophagus

20

Where does adenocarcinoma occur?

Near the GE junction

21

Difference between erosion and ulcer:

Erosion: loss of epithelium
Ulcer: deep extension of erosion (submucosa)

22

What causes stress ulcers?

Severe trauma, shock, sepsis

23

What are Curling's ulcers?

Proximal duodenum, severe trauma or burns

24

What are Cushing's ulcers?

Gastric, duodenal, esophageal due to intracranial processes and vagal stimulation

25

What does H. pylori cause?

Decreased acid
Gastrin levels increased
Antral (pylorus) location and may progress to multifocal atrophic gastritis

26

What are virulence factors from H. pylori?

Flagella
Urease: ammonia generated from urea increasing tissue pH
Adhesins
Toxins (CagA)

27

What are the types of chronic gastritis?

Autoimmune
H. pylori

28

What are the key clinical features of autoimmune gastritis?

Abs against parietal cells
Pernicious anemia (parietal cells cannot produce IF)
Body and fundus affected not the antrum
Achlorhydria
Hypergastrinemia