Flashcards in Clinicopathologic Considerations of Dyspepsia Deck (28)
What demographic is affected by infectious esophagitis?
Immune compromised individuals
What is dyspepsia?
What is dysphagia?
What is odynophagia?
What does postprandial mean?
What is GERD?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
5 causes of esophagitis?
3.) Reflux (GERD)
4.) GVHD (Graft vs host disease)
5.) Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE)
What can cause infectious esophagitis?
What causes GERD?
What occurs in GERD?
Refluxed gastric acid overwhelms mucous defenses: Mucous, HCO3-
Treatment of GERD?
First elimination of risks
Proton pump inhibitors
What is eosinophilic esophagitis?
Allergic reaction causing esophagus inflammation
Where does GERD affect?
Only distal 1/3 of the esophagus
Where does eosinophilic esophagitis affect?
Throughout the entire esophagus
What are symptoms of EE?
Abundance of eosinophils in the throat and atopic (dermatitis)
What is the treatment for EE?
Dietary change (PPI's don't work)
What occurs in Barrett's esophagus?
Squamous cells in distal 1/3 of esophagus changing to small intestinal epithelium with goblet cells; metaplastic (reversible)
What does Barrett's esophagus put the patient at risk for?
Where does squamous cell carcinoma occur?
Proximal and distal end of esophagus
Where does adenocarcinoma occur?
Near the GE junction
Difference between erosion and ulcer:
Erosion: loss of epithelium
Ulcer: deep extension of erosion (submucosa)
What causes stress ulcers?
Severe trauma, shock, sepsis
What are Curling's ulcers?
Proximal duodenum, severe trauma or burns
What are Cushing's ulcers?
Gastric, duodenal, esophageal due to intracranial processes and vagal stimulation
What does H. pylori cause?
Gastrin levels increased
Antral (pylorus) location and may progress to multifocal atrophic gastritis
What are virulence factors from H. pylori?
Urease: ammonia generated from urea increasing tissue pH
What are the types of chronic gastritis?