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Flashcards in CNS Deck (57):
1

Ascending sensory pathways?

dorsal column

2

Fine touch - ascending branches of the large myelinated axons of dorsal root ganglion cells which enter at each spinal segmental level

1st order neuron
2nd order neuron
3rd order neuron

first order neuron of dorsal column

3

in the dorsal column nuclei

1st order neuron
2nd order neuron
3rd order neuron

2nd order neuron

4

dorsal column contains __ and __ which does what?

Nucleus cuneatus – arm and upper body

Nucleus gracilis - receives info from lower part of body and leg

5

Sensation of dorsal column nuclei

fine touch
proprioception
vibration

6

Dorsal column damage in spine

ipsilateral
contralateral

ipsilateral

7

Ascending pathway above medulla

contralateral

8

Where is decussates

Anterolateral
Dorsal column

Anterolateral - spinal column

Dorsal column - medulla

9

Location of 2nd order nuclei

Anterolateral
Dorsal column

Anterolateral - spinal cord

Dorsal column -medulla

10

Sensation of Anterolateral

pain
thermal
crude touch
itch
sexual sensation

11

Damage to somatosensory cortex main symptom?

Loss of stereognosis

12

pain

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

b. contralateral

13

thermal

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

b. contralateral

14

crude touch

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

b. contralateral

15

itch

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

b. contralateral

16

sexual sensation

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

b. contralateral

17

fine touch

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

a. ipsilateral

18

proprioception

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

a. ipsilateral

19

vibration

Damage to spine:
a. ipsilateral
b. contralateral

a. ipsilateral

20

True of dorsal column and anterolateral column

- Enter spinal cord via dorsal roots/dorsal horn

- End in the sensory cortex

- Meet in the thalamus

- Use three levels of neurons

21

Conveys many types of sensation

- Dorsal column
- Anterolateral

Anterolateral

22

Important descending tracts and function

lateral - hand and finger

medial - head and face

23

lateral motor system originate from (aka corticospinal tract)

primary motor, premotor, supplemental, and cingulate motor areas - frontal lobe

somatosensory cortex - parietal cortex

24

lateral motor system terminates in (both pathways)

MAIN - interneurons in the intermediate area of the cord gray matter - lateral corticospinal

(minor) anterior motor neurons in the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord - lateral corticobulbar

25

Location of gray matter

brain
spine

brain - outside
spine - inside (grey butterfly)

26

What makes up the lateral system?

lateral corticospinal tract

lateral corticobulbar tract

27

In hands and fingers where does anterior motor neurons of the lateral corticobulbar tract terminate ?

cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

28

What makes up the medial system?

medial corticospinal tract

most of corticobulbar tract

29

two pyramidal tracts

corticospinal and corticobulbar

30

corticobulbar means it terminates where?

medulla oblongata

31

functions of medial motor system

- axial muscles
- bilateral contractions for bilateral functions and postural support

32

motor cortex controls

a. voluntary movement
b. involuntary movements

voluntary movement - issues commands

33

Where are the patterns of function?

brain stem
spinal cord

34

cerebellum does/does not cause muscle contraction

does not - coordination

35

is there paralysis if the cerebellum is damaged?

no paralysis but loss of coordination, correction, and learning of movement

36

abnormalities of cerebellum

- dysmetria and ataxia

- intention tremors, nystagmus

- dysarthria

- hypotonia

- dysdiadochokinesia

- pendular knee jerk

- decomposition of movement

37

accessory motor systems

cerebellum and basal ganglia

38

These receives input from

basal ganglia
cerebellum

basal ganglia - cortex only

cerebellum - cortex and spinal cord

39

How does the basal ganglia interact with the motor cortex?

1) increase firing via direct pathway by activating corpus striatum

2) reduce activity of neurons by activating globus pallidus internus [buses are slow]

40

How does the following affect movment?

basal ganglia
cerebellum

basal ganglia - tone and strength

cerebellum - coordination

41

damage to basal ganglia

- altered muscle tone

- loss of associated movements

- adventitial movement

- masked expression

- paucity of movement

- gait instability

42

What are the special areas of the brain and function?

broca's area - word formation

limbic - behavior, emotions, motivation

wernicke's area - language comprehension intelligence

43

damage to Wernicke's area

a. expressive aphasia
b. global aphasia
c. receptive aphasia
d. dyslexia

c. receptive aphasia

44

damage to Broca's area

a. expressive aphasia
b. global aphasia
c. receptive aphasia
d. dyslexia

a. expressive aphasia

45

damage to Broca's and Wernicke's areas

a. expressive aphasia
b. global aphasia
c. receptive aphasia
d. dyslexia

b. global aphasia

46

damage to angular gyrus

a. expressive aphasia
b. global aphasia
c. receptive aphasia
d. dyslexia

d. dyslexia

47

lesion to nondominant hemisphere may lead to

cortical neglect

48

accommodation is what type of event and contracts what?

a. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic

b. parasympathetic - ciliary muscles

49

What happens with accommodation?

parasympathetic event -> ciliary muscles contract -> eases pull on lense -> more spherical shape -> INCREASED refractive power

50

Spherical shape of lens does this to refractive power

a. increase
b. decrease

a. increase

51

Emmetropia is ___ and light converges ___ to retina. Corrected with this type of lens.

a. normal vision
b. far-sighted
c. near-sighted

a. normal vision; directly on; none

52

Hyperopia is ___ and light converges ___ to retina. Corrected with this type of lens.

a. normal vision
b. far-sighted
c. near-sighted

b. far-sighted; posterior; convex

53

Myopia is ___ and light converges ___ to retina. Corrected with this type of lens.

a. normal vision
b. far-sighted
c. near-sighted

c. near-sighted; anterior; concave

54

In light adaptation, rods and cones (photochemcals) are

a. increase
b. decrease

b. decrease

55

In dark adaptation, rods and cones (photochemcals) are

a. increase
b. decrease

a. increase

56

impedance matching

tympanic membrane -> bigger than stapes -> very strong vibration through oval window -> overcome fluid in cochlea

57

fluid movement moves which part of the middle ear

basalar membrane