Flashcards in CNS/muscle Deck (33):
developmental disorders of CNS
anencephaly, spina bifida, meningocele
lack of fusion of posterior bony arch, protrusion of meninges thru defect
meninges made up of:
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
4 types intracranial hemorrhage
epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral
caused by skull fracture, between skull and dura mater, progresses quickly
between dura and arachnoid, caused by blunt trauma, non-specific symptoms, progresses slowly
between arachnoid and pia, caused by traumatic contusion of brain, ruptured aneurysms of circle of willis
caused by blunt/penetrating trauma to head, stroke
3rd most common cause of death
cerebrovasc disease related to:
atherosclerosis, hypertension, thromboembolism
cerebrovasc disese usually due to:
cerebral infarction, intracerebral hem.
liquefactive necrosis in stroke called:
common sites of intracerebral hem:
basal ganglia, cerebellar, pontine
edema reversible or irreversible?
examples of prion infections
BSE, CJD, Kuru
hallmark of CJD?
vacuolization of cells of grey matter with neuronal loss (spongiform change)
what is demyelinating disease?
myelin loss, loss oligodendrocytes, eg. MS
what is degenerating disease?
loss of neurons, eg. alzheimer's
areas of demyelination in white matter
diagnose MS with:
lumbar puncture (^ IgG and oligoclonal bands in CSF)
factors in pathogenesis of MS
autoimmune, more in women, enviro (temperate), genes
classic cause of isolated dementia
pathologic features of alzheimers
neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, amyloid angiopathy
clin features of alzheimer's:
dementia, functional decline, loss of memory
damaged ligaments, pain from small hemorrhage and edema
result from physical stretch of muscle in opposite directions, pain from tears in musc.-tendon junction
sex-linked recessive, caused by deficiency of dystrophin
duchenne muscular dystrophy
duchenne's symptoms begin ___ and characterized by __ sign
site of pathology is neuromusc junction, autoimmune, binding of Ach blocked
MG start in:
why die in MG?
MG associated with enlarged: