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Flashcards in CNS/muscle Deck (33):
1

developmental disorders of CNS

anencephaly, spina bifida, meningocele

2

lack of fusion of posterior bony arch, protrusion of meninges thru defect

meningocele

3

meninges made up of:

dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

4

4 types intracranial hemorrhage

epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral

5

caused by skull fracture, between skull and dura mater, progresses quickly

epidural hematoma

6

between dura and arachnoid, caused by blunt trauma, non-specific symptoms, progresses slowly

subdural hematoma

7

between arachnoid and pia, caused by traumatic contusion of brain, ruptured aneurysms of circle of willis

subarachnoid hemorrhage

8

caused by blunt/penetrating trauma to head, stroke

intracerebral hem.

9

3rd most common cause of death

cerebrovascular disease

10

cerebrovasc disease related to:

atherosclerosis, hypertension, thromboembolism

11

cerebrovasc disese usually due to:

cerebral infarction, intracerebral hem.

12

liquefactive necrosis in stroke called:

encephalomalacia

13

common sites of intracerebral hem:

basal ganglia, cerebellar, pontine

14

edema reversible or irreversible?

reversible

15

examples of prion infections

BSE, CJD, Kuru

16

hallmark of CJD?

vacuolization of cells of grey matter with neuronal loss (spongiform change)

17

what is demyelinating disease?

myelin loss, loss oligodendrocytes, eg. MS

18

what is degenerating disease?

loss of neurons, eg. alzheimer's

19

areas of demyelination in white matter

plaques

20

diagnose MS with:

lumbar puncture (^ IgG and oligoclonal bands in CSF)

21

factors in pathogenesis of MS

autoimmune, more in women, enviro (temperate), genes

22

classic cause of isolated dementia

alzheimer's

23

pathologic features of alzheimers

neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, amyloid angiopathy

24

clin features of alzheimer's:

dementia, functional decline, loss of memory

25

damaged ligaments, pain from small hemorrhage and edema

sprains

26

result from physical stretch of muscle in opposite directions, pain from tears in musc.-tendon junction

strains

27

sex-linked recessive, caused by deficiency of dystrophin

duchenne muscular dystrophy

28

duchenne's symptoms begin ___ and characterized by __ sign

3-5yrs; Gower's

29

site of pathology is neuromusc junction, autoimmune, binding of Ach blocked

myasthenia gravis

30

MG start in:

eyelids

31

why die in MG?

respiratory failure

32

MG associated with enlarged:

thymus

33

how treat MG?

anti-cholinesterase (don't break down Ach)